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Table 1 Summary of assessments for ankle injury

From: Understanding acute ankle ligamentous sprain injury in sports

Testes Descriptions (Sensitivity and specificity included if data is available)
Lynam [94] An examination to assess acute foot and ankle sprain at emergency room.
Harmon [95] A systematic approach that consists of five steps to avoid missing potentially serious injuries.
Ottawa ankle rules [97] Rules to decide whether patients with acute ankle injury need X-ray or radiography. 100% sensitivity and 40% specificity for detection of malleolus fractures.
Radiography [100, 101, 107] Stress radiography was performed with manual maximum force in inversion. The talar tilt was measured as the angle between the horizontal skeletal joint surfaces of the talus and the tibia.
Anterior drawer test [40, 102] Assesses the stability of the ATFL by cupping the heel in one hand and pulling it forward while stabilizing the tibia with other hand.
Talar tilt test [102] Both ATFL and CFL were accessed, while ankle is inverted and the laxity was compared with that of the uninjured side.
Eversion stress test [103] Heel was gently grasped with one hand, and the tibia with the other hand. A varus and then a valgus tilt stress were applied to the heel.
External rotation test [50] Knee and ankle at 90 degree and a force with external rotation is applied to the midfoot area. Test is positive with pain.
Magnetic resonance imaging [99, 104] 5-point grading system using noninvasive, high-resolution MRI to evaluate the articular cartilage of the talar dome. Sensitivity is 39% and Specificity is 50% for diagnose ankle-ligamentous injury.
Arthography [105] After passive manipulation of the foot for 2 min, radiographs were obtained in 20 degrees internal rotation, anteroposterior projection, 40 degrees external rotation, lateral projection, and a soft tissue view just caudal to the lateral malleolus. Sensitivity is 100%.
Sonography [106] Patient lay on the side of unaffected leg with the knee joint flexed to 90 degrees, while the affected leg was only slightly flexed. Sensitivity is 92% and specificity is 83%.
3D computed tomography [107] 3D CT images were obtained with a multidirector CT scanner. The patient was placed in supine position with the neutral position of bilateral ankle joint. Accuracy to diagnose ATFL tears is 94.4%.