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Table 3 Summary of the treatment Methods for ankle sprain injury.

From: Understanding acute ankle ligamentous sprain injury in sports

Treatment Effect Detail
Aircast ankle brace [136] Significant improvement in ankle joint function at both 10 days and one month compared with standard management with an elastic support bandage. Application of a semi-rigid ankle brace consists of two contured thermoplastic lateral straps lined with foam pads and designed to fit against the medial and lateral malleoli of the ankle joint. The aircells can be supplemented with additional air through an inlet port. The rigid sidewalls are held in place with Velcro strapping.
Elastic support bandage [136] Inprove single-leg-stance balance and might decrease the likelihood of future sprains. -
Training on wobble board [137] Anteroposterior and mediolateral stability improved after training. Patient practices balancing on a rectangular or square platform with a single plane-rounded fulcrum underneath that extends the width of the board.
Ankle disk training [138, 139] Balanced improved after training. Patients have to balance the circular platform with hemispherical ball underneath, without allowing the edges of the platform to touch the floor.
Imagery [141] Greater muscle endurance than the control group. Movement imagery, including visual imagery of movement itself and imagery of kinaesthetic sensations.
Resistive walking boot [146] - Patients' ankle were immobilize by walking boot with aircast support and compression wrap in the first 0–5 days after injury.
Traditional Chinese medicine methods [141, 147150] - Drug treatment, electroacupuncture, massages.