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Table 1 Investigations reporting upon the free moment (FM) during running and walking.

From: The free moment in walking and its change with foot rotation angle

Author(s), year Activity Subjects FM Normalization Peak FM (± SD) †
Nigg et al, 1982 [34] ‡ Walking (w) & Running (r) 16, unilateral ACL insufficiency None (w) Injured limb 12.9 Nm (w) Normal limb 11.5 Nm (r) Injured Limb 15.9 Nm (r) Normal Limb 17.5 Nm
Nigg, 1986 [7] § Running (3.5 ms-1) 1, rear foot striker. None Range across different footwear conditions5-7 Nm
Holden & Cavanagh, 1991 [8] £ Running (4.5 ± 10% ms-1) 10, male, 'normal foot arches'. BW × ht 'Varus' shoes 6.7 ± 1.6 × 10-3 'Neutral' shoes 9.7 ± 1.6 × 10-3 'Valgus' shoes 12.4 ± 1.6 × 10-3
Milner et al, 2006 [9] Running (3.7 ± 5% ms-1) Control Group: 25, mixed, healthy. Experimental Group: 25, female, history of tibial stress fractures. BW × ht 5.9 ± 2.1 × 10-3 9.3 ± 4.3 × 10-3
Creaby & Dixon, 2008 [33] Running (3.6 ± 5% ms-1) Control Group: 20 military recruits, no lower extremity injuries. Experimental Group: 10 military recruits, sustained tibial stress fracture. BW × ht 9.3 ± 3.2 × 10-3 9.5 ± 2.1 × 10-3
Li et al, 2001 [13] § Walking ('low', 'comfortable', 'fast') 17 total (5 adult males, 6 adult females, 6 children). BW Range across speed conditions, adults only 2.5 - 10.0 × 10-3
Umberger, 2008 [14] § Walking (1.3 ms-1) 5 male, 3 female, healthy. BW × LL Range 0.5-1.5 × 10-2
  1. BW = bodyweight, ht = height, LL = leg length
  2. † Note differences in peak FM magnitude between studies due to different normalization procedures.
  3. ‡ Nigg et al (1982) do not provide ambulation speeds, participant sex or peak FM dispersions measures.
  4. £ Holden and Cavanagh (1991) report peak FM variability using the standard error of the mean (SEM).
  5. Values were converted to SD by multiplying the SEM by the square root of the sample size (n = 10).
  6. § Peak FM values not explicitly given. Approximate values are listed based on visual estimation of depicted FM time histories.