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Table 2 Foot rotation angle, walking speed and FM measures in each of the three foot rotation conditions.

From: The free moment in walking and its change with foot rotation angle

  Foot rotation condition
Variable Internal§ Normal External£
Foot Rotation Angle (degrees) -9.1 ± 7.9 18.5 ± 8.15 40.2 ± 8.7
Walking Speed (ms-1) 1.08 ± 0.16 1.10 ± 0.12 1.12 ± 0.15
Un-normalized Peak FM (Nm)* 3.9 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 1.4 8.8 ± 6.4
PFM (dimensionless, × 10-3) 3.2 ± 0.9 2.8 ± 0.8 6.7 ± 4.1
OPFM (% stance) 69 ± 3 70 ± 9 77 ± 9
IMP (× 10-2) 7.5 ± 2.7 5.8 ± 3.2 11.0 ± 4.1
  1. PFM = normalized peak free moment, OPFM = occurrence of peak free moment, IMP = relative net impulse. All values presented as mean ± 1 SD.
  2. * Un-normalized peak FM presented for the sake of comparison with results of other investigations.
  3. † All foot rotation angles significantly different than each other (p < 0.016)
  4. ‡ Significantly different than normal walking condition (p < 0.05)
  5. § Effect size values for Norm vs. INT: PFM = 0.31, OPFM = -0.14, IMP = 0.39.
  6. £ Effect size values for Norm vs. Ext: PFM = 0.88, OPFM = 0.51, IMP = 0.92.