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Table 2 Mean (SD) maximum anatomical joint angles in degrees.

From: Lower trunk kinematics and muscle activity during different types of tennis serves

Serve type Flat Top-spin Slice
Motion* AV AI AV AI AV AI
Extension# 19.3 (11.9) 27.5 (10.9) 19.3 (10.6) 31.9 (17.2) 20.0 (10.1) 26.9 (7.6)
Left lateral Flexion# 16.0 (4.1) 12.3 (5.2) 15.5 (5.4) 10.9 (4.8) 15.4 (5.3) 12.4 (8.4)
Left Twisting 7.9 (4.3) 6.8 (3.8) 6.8 (4.1) 5.4 (0.96 5.5 (3.8) 4.3 (3.1)
Right Twisting 5.6 (4.6) 4.2 (1.8) 6.1 (6.9) 4.1 (0.6) 11.2 (12.7) 4.1 (3.1)
  1. * Significant difference among different motions (p < 0.01).
  2. # Significant difference between AV (advanced) and AI (advanced intermediate) groups (p < 0.05).