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Table 2 Mean (SD) maximum anatomical joint angles in degrees.

From: Lower trunk kinematics and muscle activity during different types of tennis serves

Serve type Flat Top-spin Slice
Motion* AV AI AV AI AV AI
Extension# 19.3
(11.9)
27.5
(10.9)
19.3
(10.6)
31.9
(17.2)
20.0
(10.1)
26.9
(7.6)
Left lateral Flexion# 16.0
(4.1)
12.3
(5.2)
15.5
(5.4)
10.9
(4.8)
15.4
(5.3)
12.4
(8.4)
Left Twisting 7.9
(4.3)
6.8
(3.8)
6.8
(4.1)
5.4
(0.96
5.5
(3.8)
4.3
(3.1)
Right Twisting 5.6
(4.6)
4.2
(1.8)
6.1
(6.9)
4.1
(0.6)
11.2
(12.7)
4.1
(3.1)
  1. * Significant difference among different motions (p < 0.01).
  2. # Significant difference between AV (advanced) and AI (advanced intermediate) groups (p < 0.05).