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Table 2 Shoulder strength (in Nm) in men and women by age

From: Rotational strength, range of motion, and function in people with unaffected shoulders from various stages of life

  Internal
Rotation (D)
Internal
Rotation (ND)
External Rotation (D) External
Rotation (ND)
  Mean* Mean* Mean* Mean*
Men 45.2 ± 15.8 (n = 60) 42.8 ± 15.6 (n = 60) 33.6 ± 11.3 (n = 81) 34.0 ± 9.9 (n = 60)
18–39 46.8 ± 16.5 (n = 25) 45.7 ± 15.6¶,a (n = 25) 33.6 ± 9.0¶,a (n = 42) 35.8 ± 9.5¶,a (n = 25)
40–59 50.5 ± 16.7 (n = 18) 49.4 ± 15.5¶,b (n = 18) 40.0 ± 11.8¶,b (n = 21) 38.6 ± 8.6¶,b (n = 18)
60+ 37.1 ± 10.1 (n = 17) 31.5 ± 8.8¶,a, b (n = 17) 25.9 ± 11.2¶,a, b (n = 18) 26.5 ± 7.7¶,a, b (n = 17)
Women 20.7 ± 7.6 (n = 71) 18.7 ± 6.6 (n = 71) 17.0 ± 4.8 (n = 88) 16.6 ± 5.2 (n = 71)
18–39 23.2 ± 9.0 (n = 28) 21.0 ± 7.2 (n = 28) 17.2 ± 5.0 (n = 43) 17.5 ± 5.7 (n = 28)
40–59 18.8 ± 5.7 (n = 31) 17.6 ± 5.6 (n = 31) 17.5 ± 3.7 (n = 32) 16.0 ± 2.9 (n = 31)
60+ 19.8 ± 7.1 (n = 12) 16.2 ± 6.3 (n = 12) 14.8 ± 5.9 (n = 13) 15.8 ± 8.3 (n = 12)
Total 31.9 ± 17.1§ (n = 131) 29.7 ± 16.7§ (n = 131) 24.9 ± 11.9§ (n = 169) 24.6 ± 11.6§ (n = 131)
18–39 34.3 ± 17.6 (n = 53) 32.6 ± 17.2 (n = 53) 25.3 ± 11.0 (n = 85) 26.2 ± 11.9 (n = 53)
40–59 30.5 ± 18.9 (n = 49) 29.3 ± 18.6 (n = 49) 26.4 ± 13.7 (n = 53) 24.3 ± 12.3 (n = 49)
60+ 30.0 ± 12.4 (n = 29) 25.1 ± 10.9 (n = 29) 21.3 ± 10.8 (n = 31) 22.1 ± 9.5 (n = 29)
  1. Significant differences between: men and women; §dominant and non-dominant sides; a18–39 and over-60 age categories; b40–59 and over-60 age categories. * Mean ± 1 SD
  2. Abbreviations: D, Dominant arm; ND, Non-dominant arm.