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Table 1 Mechanical properties of human ligaments and tendons

From: Role of biomechanics in the understanding of normal, injured, and healing ligaments and tendons

Tissue Modulus (MPa) Ultimate Tensile Strength (MPa) Ultimate Strain (%) Source
Knee     
   Medial Collateral Ligament 332 ± 58 39 ± 5 17 ± 2 [74]
   Anterior Cruciate Ligament 65–447 13–46 15–44 [7577]
   Posterior Cruciate Ligament 150–447 30–36 11–19 [67, 75, 78]
   Patellar Tendon 504–680 54–65 12–15 [75, 79, 80]
Lower extremity     
   Gracilis Tendon 590–1734 111–112 7–19.4 [79, 81]
   Semitendinosus Tendon 540–1081 89–124 8–23 [79, 81]
   Achilles Tendon 819 ± 208 79 ± 22 9 ± 2 [82]
Shoulder     
   Inferior Glenohumeral Ligament 5–42 1–6 8–33 [83, 84]
   Posterior Glenohumeral Capsule 10–32 2–5 22–23 [85]