Measurement positions for the glenohumeral joint in vitro. External rotation at 0°, 30° and 60° elevation in the scapula plane (Figure 3-A), external rotation at 30° and 60° flexion (Figure 3-B), external rotation at 30° and 60° abduction (Figure 3-C), external rotation at 30° extension (Figure 3-D), external rotation and adduction at 30° extension (Figure 3-E). In the globe system, the scapula plane was consistent with 0 degree of longitude. Then, the latitude of the globe system indicates elevation angle of the glenohumeral joint. The longitude of globe system indicates horizontal adduction or abduction angle of the glenohumeral joint. Arrows indicated direction of motion of the glenohumeral joint as external rotation. ER: External Rotaion of the glenohumeral joint.