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Table 1 Injury patterns, and relative tests.

From: Clinical examination of the knee: know your tools for diagnosis of knee injuries

Injury Pattern Injured Structure Tests
Anteromedial Instability ACL + MCL + MM valgus stress, anterior drawer, Lachman
Anterolateral Instability ACL + LC + LM valgus stress, anterior drawer, Lachman, pivot shift
Posterolateral Instability PLC external rotation, dial, recurvatum, posterolateral drawer
Posteromedial Instability MCL + ACL + PMC valgus stress, posterior drawer, Lachman
Anteromedial + Anterolateral Instability ACL + MCL + lateral capsule (PCL intact) anterior drawer, Lachman, pivot shift, valgus stress
Posteromedial + Posterolateral Instability ACL + MCL +PLC (PCL intact) anterior drawer, Lachman, pivot shift, valgus stress, varus stress
  1. Tests are reported in order of sensibility (Adapted with permission from: Rossi R, Bruzzone M, Dettoni F, Margheritini F: Clinical examination of the knee. In: Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Principles and Practice. Edited by Margheritini F, Rossi R. Milan: Springer; 2010).
  2. ACL: Anterior Cruciate Ligament; MCL: Medial Collateral Ligament; MM: Medial Meniscus; LC: Lateral Capsule; LM: Lateral Meniscus; PLC PosteroLateral Corner; PMC: PosteroMedial Corner; PCL Posterior Cruciate Ligament