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Table 2 Summary of studies investigating sex differences in knee flexion angles and moments during a vertical landing task

From: Sex-dimorphic landing mechanics and their role within the noncontact ACL injury mechanism: evidence, limitations and directions

References Population Landing Task Result†
  Category Mean Age (years) Double-Leg vs. Single Leg Height (cm) at IC peak RoM
Knee Flexion Angle       
   Ford et al. [26] Adolescent 12-16 (range) Double 31 0 + ---
   Walsh et al. [44] Adult-Athlete 19.5 Double 30.5 0 0 ---
   Salci et al. [40] Adult-Athlete 21.4 Double 40 & 60 --- - (40)
0 (60)
---
   Hughes & Watkins [29] Adult-Athlete 21.4 Double not specified - 0 +
   Hughes et al. [31] Adult-Athlete 21.4 Double not specified 0 + +
   Russell et al. [39] Adolescent & Adult 9.5 (youth)
23.9 (adult)
Double 50% of maximum vertical jump height 0 --- ---
   Cortes et al. [21] Adult 23.8 Double 30 0 0 ---
   Chaudhari et al. [9] Adult 19.9 Double 30.48 0 --- ---
   Earl et al. [23] Adult 22.8 Double 31 --- 0 ---
   Huston et al. [8] Adult 28.0 Double 20, 40 & 60 0 (20)
- (40 & 60)
0 0
   Shultz et al. [12] Adult 22.4 Double 45 0 --- +
   Gehring et al. [27] Adult 23.8 Double 52 0 + ---
   Decker et al. [22] Adult 27.5 Double 60 - --- -
   Kernozek et al. [32] Adult 24.1 Double 60 0 0 0
   Pappas et al. [37] Adult 28.5 Double & Single 40 0 0 ---
   Kiriyama et al. [33] Adolescent 17.0 Single 20 --- 0 ---
   Lephart et al. [34] Adult-Athlete 20.3 Single 20 --- - ---
   Fagenbaum & Darling [24] Adult-Athlete not specified Single 25.4 & 50.8 + + ---
   Nagano et al. [35] Adult-Athlete 19.6 Single 30 0 0a ---
   Orishimo et al. [36] Adult-Athlete 26.3 Single 30 0 0 0
   Urabe et al. [42] Adult-Athlete 22.1 Single maximum vertical jump height 0 --- ---
   Schmitz et al. [41] Adult 23.2 Single 30 0 --- -
   Kernozek et al. [10] Adult 23.4 Single 50 --- 0 ---
   TOTAL*     % (-/+/0) 20/5/75 11/22/67 25/38/38
Knee Flexion Moment       
   Ford et al. [26] Adolescent 12-16 (range) Double 31 --- 0 ---
   Salci et al. [40] Adult-Athlete 21.4 Double 40 & 60 --- 0 (40)
+ (60)
---
   Chaudhari et al. [9] Adult 19.9 Double 30.48 --- 0 ---
   Shultz et al. [12] Adult 22.4 Double 45 --- + ---
   Decker et al. [22] Adult 27.5 Double 60 --- 0 ---
   Kernozek et al. [32] Adult 24.1 Double 60 --- 0 ---
   Orishimo et al. [36] Adult-Athlete 26.3 Single 30 0 0 ---
   Kernozek et al. [10] Adult 23.4 Single 50 --- 0 ---
   TOTAL*     % (-/+/0) 0/0/100 0/22/78 ---
  1. † +: greater value in female subjects; -: smaller value in female subjects; 0: no differences between sexes; ---: not investigated
  2. Landing from a jump to block a volleyball in the presence of a net of standard, sex-specific height
  3. a knee flexion angle at peak vertical ground reaction force
  4. * Percentage of studies having found lower (-), greater (+), and similar (0) values in female subjects in comparison with male subjects
  5. IC: initial ground contact; RoM: range of motion