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Table 3 Summary of studies investigating sex differences in hip flexion angles and moments during a vertical landing task

From: Sex-dimorphic landing mechanics and their role within the noncontact ACL injury mechanism: evidence, limitations and directions

References Population Landing Task Result†
  Category Mean Age (years) Double-Leg vs. Single Leg Height (cm) at IC peak RoM
Hip Flexion Angle       
   Ford et al. [26] Adolescent 12-16 Double 31 - 0 ---
   Salci et al. [40] Adult-Athlete 21.4 Double 40 & 60 --- - (40)
0 (60)
---
   Hughes & Watkins [29] Adult-Athlete 21.4 Double not specified 0 + +
   Cortes et al. [21] Adult 23.8 Double 30 0 0a ---
   Shultz et al. [12] Adult 22.4 Double 45 0 --- +
   Decker et al. [22] Adult 27.5 Double 60 0 --- 0
   Kernozek et al. [32] Adult 24.1 Double 60 0 0 0
   Lephart et al. [34] Adult-Athlete 20.3 Single 20 --- 0 ---
   Orishimo et al. [36] Adult-Athlete 26.3 Single 30 0 0a 0
   Schmitz et al. [41] Adult 23.2 Single 30 0 --- -
   Kernozek et al. [10] Adult 23.4 Single 50 --- + ---
   TOTAL*     % (-/+/0) 13/0/88 11/22/67 17/33/50
Hip Flexion Moment       
   Salci et al. [40] Adult-Athlete 21.4 Double 40 & 60 --- 0 ---
   Decker et al. [22] Adult 27.5 Double 60 --- 0 ---
   Kernozek et al. [32] Adult 24.1 Double 60 --- 0 ---
   Orishimo et al. [36] Adult-Athlete 26.3 Single 30 0 0 ---
   Kernozek et al. [10] Adult 23.4 Single 50 --- 0 ---
   TOTAL*     % (-/+/0) 0/0/100 0/0/100 ---
  1. † +: greater value in female subjects; -: smaller value in female subjects; 0: no differences between sexes; ---: not investigated
  2. Landing from a jump to block a volleyball in the presence of a net of standard, sex-specific height
  3. a hip flexion angle at peak knee flexion angle
  4. * Percentage of studies having found lower (-), greater (+), and similar (0) values in female subjects in comparison with male subjects
  5. IC: initial ground contact; RoM: range of motion