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Table 4 Summary of studies investigating sex differences in knee abduction angles and moments during a vertical landing task

From: Sex-dimorphic landing mechanics and their role within the noncontact ACL injury mechanism: evidence, limitations and directions

References Population Landing Task Result†
  Category Mean Age (years) Double-Leg vs. Single Leg Height (cm) at IC peak RoM
Knee Abduction Angle       
   Schmitz et al. [11] Adolescent 14.1 Double 30 --- --- +a
   Ford et al. [25] Adolescent 16.0 Double 31 0 + ---
   Ford et al. [13] Adolescent 12-16 Double 31 --- +b ---
   Hewett et al. [28] Adolescent 14.1 Double 31 + + ---
   Walsh et al. [44] Adult-Athlete 19.5 Double 30.5 + + ---
   Hughes et al. [30] Adult-Athlete 21.4 Double not specified 0 + +
   Hughes et al. [31] Adult-Athlete 21.4 Double not specified 0 + +
   Wallace et al. [43] Adult-Athlete 21.6 Double maximum vertical jump height --- 0 ---
   Cortes et al. [21] Adult 23.8 Double 30 0 0c ---
   Earl et al. [23] Adult 22.8 Double 31 --- + ---
   Gehring et al. [27] Adult 23.8 Double 52 + + ---
   Kernozek et al. [32] Adult 24.1 Double 60 0 + +
   Pappas et al. [37] Adult 28.5 Double & Single 40 --- +d ---
   Kiriyama et al. [33] Adolescent 17.0 Single 20 --- 0 ---
   Nagano et al. [35] Adult-Athlete 19.6 Single 30 0 0e ---
   Orishimo et al. [36] Adult-Athlete 26.3 Single 30 0 0c 0
   Kernozek et al. [10] Adult 23.4 Single 50 --- + ---
   Russell et al. [38] Adult 22.5 Single 60 + +c ---
   TOTAL*     % (-/+/0) 0/36/64 0/71/29 0/80/20
Knee Abduction Moment       
   Ford et al. [13] Adolescent 12-16 Double 31 --- +b ---
   Sigward et al. [14] Adolescent 14.7 Double 36 --- +f ---
   Chaudhari et al. [9] Adult 19.9 Double 30.48 --- 0 ---
   Kernozek et al. [32] Adult 24.1 Double 60 --- - ---
   Orishimo et al. [36] Adult-Athlete 26.3 Single 30 0 0 ---
   Kernozek et al. [10] Adult 23.4 Single 50 --- 0 ---
   TOTAL*     % (-/+/0) 0/0/100 17/33/50 ---
  1. † +: greater value in female subjects; -: smaller value in female subjects; 0: no differences between sexes; ---: not investigated
  2. Landing from a jump to block a volleyball in the presence of a net of standard, sex-specific height
  3. a frontal-plane angle in two dimensions
  4. b in post-pubertal group only (and not pre-pubertal group)
  5. c knee abduction angle at peak knee flexion angle
  6. d knee abduction angle at 40° knee flexion angle
  7. e knee abduction angle at peak vertical ground reaction force
  8. f average knee abduction moment
  9. * Percentage of studies having found lower (-), greater (+), and similar (0) values in female subjects in comparison with male subjects
  10. IC: initial ground contact; RoM: range of motion