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Table 5 Summary of studies investigating sex differences in hip adduction angles and moments during a vertical landing task

From: Sex-dimorphic landing mechanics and their role within the noncontact ACL injury mechanism: evidence, limitations and directions

References Population Landing Task Result†
  Category Mean Age (years) Double-Leg vs. Single Leg Height (cm) at IC peak RoM
Hip Adduction Angle       
   Wallace et al. [43] Adult-Athlete 21.6 Double maximum vertical jump height --- + ---
   Earl et al. [23] Adult 22.8 Double 31 --- + ---
   Kernozek et al. [32] Adult 24.1 Double 60 0 0 0
   Pappas et al. [37] Adult 28.5 Double & Single 40 --- 0b ---
   Lephart et al. [34] Adult-Athlete 20.3 Single 20 --- 0 ---
   Orishimo et al. [36] Adult-Athlete 26.3 Single 30 0 0a 0
   Kernozek et al. [10] Adult 23.4 Single 50 --- 0 ---
   TOTAL*     % (-/+/0) 0/0/100 0/29/71 0/0/100
Hip Adduction Moment       
   Chaudhari et al. [9] Adult 19.9 Double 30.48 --- 0 ---
   Kernozek et al. [32] Adult 24.1 Double 60 --- 0 ---
   Orishimo et al. [36] Adult-Athlete 26.3 Single 30 0 0 ---
   TOTAL*     % (-/+/0) 0/0/100 0/0/100 ---
  1. † +: greater value in female subjects; -: smaller value in female subjects; 0: no differences between sexes; ---: not investigated
  2. a hip adduction angle at peak knee flexion angle
  3. b hip adduction angle at 40° knee flexion angle
  4. * Percentage of studies having found lower (-), greater (+), and similar (0) values in female subjects in comparison with male subjects
  5. IC: initial ground contact; RoM: range of motion