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Table 2 Shoulder complex ROM comparisons by arm dominance

From: Clinical descriptive measures of shoulder range of motion for a healthy, young and physically active cohort

Active ROM Excursion Dominant arm Non Dominant arm  
  MSD MSD P-value
CAD (cm) 25.38 ± 3.67 24.70 ± 3.56 <0.001*
FLX (°) 165.56 ± 7.76 164.52 ± 9.33 <0.001*
ER0 (°) 76.46 ± 11.98 74.56 ± 11.65 <0.001*
IR 90° Abduction (°) 54.72 ± 13.35 58.35 ± 11.96 <0.001*
ER 90° Abduction (°) 98.81 ± 10.88 95.30 ± 10.15 <0.001*
ARC (°) 153.53 ± 16.47 153.65 ± 14.58 0.804
Passive ROM Excursion Dominant arm Non Dominant arm  
  MSD MSD P-value
CAD (cm) 23.31 ± 3.49 22.59 ± 3.42 <0.001*
FLX (°) 170.55 ± 7.68 169.79 ± 9.44 0.009*
ER0 (°) 82.28 ± 12.34 80.48 ± 11.73 <0.001*
IR 90° Abduction (°) 58.91 ± 14.04 62.43 ± 12.80 <0.001*
ER 90° Abduction (°) 104.64 ± 10.83 100.55 ± 9.81 < 0.001*
ARC (°) 163.56 ± 17.41 162.99 ± 15.65 0.251
  1. Cross body adduction (CAD); flexion (FLX); external rotation (ER0) with the shoulder complex in a neutral position and elbow flexed to 90°; internal and external rotation (IR, ER) with the shoulder complex positioned at 90° of abduction and elbow flexed to 90°; arc (ARC) of IR and ER.
  2. Values are mean (M) ± standard deviation (SD); * Indicates statistical significance (P < 0.05).