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Table 3 Shoulder complex ROM comparisons by sex

From: Clinical descriptive measures of shoulder range of motion for a healthy, young and physically active cohort

Dominant arm    
Active ROM Excursion Men Women  
  MSD MSD P-value
CAD (cm) 25.66 ± 3.59 23.30 ± 3.60 <0.001*
FLX (°) 165.21 ± 7.57 168.12 ± 8.61 0.002*
ER0 (°) 76.03 ± 11.98 79.22 ± 12.13 0.033*
IR 90° Abduction (°) 54.52 ± 13.72 56.03 ± 10.09 0.363
ER 90° Abduction (°) 98.61 ± 10.66 100.14 ± 12.41 0.259
ARC (°) 153.14 ± 16.46 156.16 ± 16.44 0.138
Non-Dominant arm
Active ROM Excursion Men Women
  MSD MSD P-value
CAD (cm) 24.94 ± 3.50 22.91 ± 3.55 <0.001*
FLX (°) 164.10 ± 9.46 167.62 ± 7.51 0.002*
ER0 (°) 74.45 ± 11.72 75.35 ± 11.10 0.534
IR 90° Abduction (°) 58.01 ± 12.22 60.91 ± 9.40 0.051
ER 90° Abduction (°) 95.06 ± 10.11 96.99 ± 10.38 0.126
ARC (°) 153.08 ± 14.58 157.89 ± 14.07 0.008*
Dominant arm
Passive ROM Excursion Men Women
  MSD MSD P-value
CAD (cm) 23.58 ± 3.40 21.40 ± 3.59 <0.001*
FLX (°) 170.23 ± 7.51 172.85 ± 8.51 0.006*
ER0 (°) 81.83 ± 12.36 85.23 ± 12.32 0.027*
IR 90° Abduction (°) 58.72 ± 14.44 60.20 ± 10.60 0.394
ER 90° Abduction (°) 104.36 ± 10.62 106.55 ± 12.18 0.102
ARC (°) 163.09 ± 17.55 166.76 ± 16.18 0.089
Non-Dominant arm
Passive ROM Excursion Men Women
  MSD MSD P-value
CAD (cm) 22.84 ± 3.34 20.72 ± 3.48 <0.001*
FLX (°) 169.43 ± 9.62 172.39 ± 7.52 0.011*
ER0 (°) 80.27 ± 11.85 82.03 ± 10.53 0.227
IR 90° Abduction (°) 62.11 ± 13.06 64.92 ± 10.26 0.076
ER 90° Abduction (°) 100.30 ± 9.73 102.43 ± 10.20 0.079
ARC (°) 162.41 ± 15.66 167.35 ± 14.98 0.011*
  1. Cross body adduction (CAD); flexion (FLX); external rotation (ER0) with the shoulder complex in a neutral position and elbow flexed to 90°; internal and external rotation (IR, ER) with the shoulder complex positioned at 90° of abduction and elbow flexed to 90°; arc (ARC) of IR and ER.
  2. Values are mean (M) ± standard deviation (SD); * Indicates statistical significance (P < 0.05).