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Table 4 Percentiles for shoulder complex active ROM by arm dominance and sex

From: Clinical descriptive measures of shoulder range of motion for a healthy, young and physically active cohort

Dominant arm
Active ROM Excursion Sex Percentile
   5 10 25 50 75 90 95
CAD (cm) Men 32.00 30.00 28.00 26.00 23.00 21.00 20.00
Women 28.65 28.00 25.25 23.00 20.00 18.70 16.00
FLX (º) Men 153.00 155.00 160.00 165.00 170.00 175.00 179.00
Women 155.00 160.00 164.75 168.00 175.00 180.00 180.00
ER0 (º) Men 55.00 60.00 70.00 77.00 85.00 90.00 92.00
Women 55.00 62.80 75.00 80.00 88.50 94.00 95.00
IR 90° Abduction (º) Men 30.00 38.90 45.00 55.00 65.00 70.00 75.00
Women 40.00 43.50 49.50 55.00 65.00 69.30 75.00
ER 90° Abduction (º) Men 80.00 85.00 90.00 100.00 105.00 111.00 115.00
Women 80.00 84.70 90.00 101.00 110.00 115.00 125.00
ARC (º) Men 125.00 132.00 143.00 154.00 165.00 175.00 180.00
  Women 128.75 135.00 144.50 155.50 165.25 178.00 181.25
Non-dominant arm
Active ROM Excursion Sex Percentile
   5 10 25 50 75 90 95
CAD (cm) Men 30.00 29.55 27.00 25.00 23.00 20.95 19.00
Women 28.65 27.50 25.00 22.00 20.00 17.70 16.35
FLX (º) Men 150.00 155.00 160.00 165.00 170.00 175.00 178.00
Women 155.00 159.70 164.00 168.00 170.00 180.00 180.00
ER0 (º) Men 50.00 60.00 67.00 75.00 83.00 90.00 90.00
Women 60.00 60.00 70.00 76.50 85.00 90.00 90.65
IR 90° Abduction (º) Men 40.00 44.90 50.00 58.00 65.00 71.10 78.05
Women 47.00 49.40 50.75 60.00 70.00 71.50 78.65
ER 90° Abduction (º) Men 78.00 82.00 90.00 95.00 101.00 109.10 111.00
Women 80.00 85.00 90.00 96.00 105.00 114.30 115.00
ARC (º) Men 130.00 135.00 144.00 153.00 161.00 171.00 179.55
  Women 130.00 139.00 150.00 155.00 167.00 176.50 182.75
  1. Cross body adduction (CAD); flexion (FLX); external rotation (ER0) with the shoulder complex in a neutral position and elbow flexed to 90°; internal and external rotation (IR, ER) with the shoulder complex positioned at 90° of abduction and elbow flexed to 90°; arc (ARC) of IR and ER.