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Table 2 Onset times of muscle activations between Patients with ASI and Control young subjects during elevation in the sagittal and coronal planes

From: Control strategies to re-establish glenohumeral stability after shoulder injury

Muscles Sagittal plane Coronal plane
Patients with ASI (time as a %) Control young (time as a %) t-test values p-value Patients with ASI (time as a %) Control young (time as a %) t-test values p-value
(SD)(SE) (SD)(SE) (SD)(SE) (SD)(SE)
Teres major 41.03 (12.63) (1.31) 50.22 (5.13) (0.41) 6.64 <0.001* 47.64 (20.05) (2.09) 50.04 (5.27) (0.43) 1.12  
Supraspinatus −21.98# (8.90) (0.92) 22.31 (2.29) (0.18) 46.74 <0.001* −22.60# (6.86) (0.71) 21.04 (2.20) (0.17) 59.14 <0.001*
Infraspinatus 8.00 (1.62) (0.16) 60.29 (6.05) (0.49) 100.12 <0.001* 8.35 (1.64) (0.17) 56.86 (5.85) (0.47) 95.45 <0.001*
Posterior deltoid 35.36 (11.22) (1.17) 9.28 (0.95) (0.07) −22.23 <0.001* 40.93 (13.25) (1.38) 9.34 (0.92) (0.07) −22.83 <0.001*
Ipsilateral upper trapezius 9.61 (6.55) (0.68) −2.60# (0.26) (0.02) −17.88 <0.001* 15.80 (16.33) (1.70) −2.60# (0.27) (0.02) −10.81 <0.001*
Contralateral upper trapezius 32.36 (10.64) (1.11) 82.20 (7.38) (0.60) 39.45 <0.001* 41.63 (12.77) (1.33) 81.86 (8.56) (0.69) 25.84 <0.001*
Long head of biceps 56.22 (14.56) (1.51) 80.70 (8.18) (0.66) 17.23 <0.001* 49.43 (11.94) (1.24) 82.27 (9.33) (0.76) 29.51 <0.001*
  1. *Significant at p < 0.001; # -ve values indicate muscle activation before movement start (i.e. pre-setting phase).