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Table 1 Description of body positions during measurements

From: Reference values for isometric muscle force among workers for the Netherlands: a comparison of reference values

Muscle force/movement Joint/Limb position Localization HHD Position subject Fixation subject Position/fixation observer
Elbow flexion Neutral shoulder, elbow flexed 90°; upper arm against trunk Just proximal to styloid process of radius Lying supine By body weight; feet against wall Alongside the table and test subject, leaning backward
Elbow extension Same as in flexion Just proximal to ulnar head Same as in flexion Same as in flexion Same as in flexion
Knee flexion Hip and knee flexed 90° Just proximal to calcaneus Sitting on table By body weight and active fixation while gripping table In front of test subject; feet fixed onto table
Knee extension Same as in flexion Just proximal to talis Same as in flexion By body weight and active fixation. In front of test subject; fixated by body weight, gripping table, and pushing forward; HHD fixation against upper leg
Shoulder abduction 90° abduction in shoulder Just proximal to lateral epicondyle Sitting on examination table or chair Body weight Behind subject
  1. HHD, Hand-held dynamometer.