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Table 1 Changes in race times for women

From: Nation related participation and performance trends in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ from 1985 to 2012

A: Change in race times for the annual top ten women between 1985 and 2012   
Country Race time in 1985 (min) Race time in 2012 (min) Change absolute (min) Change in percent (%)  
Japan# 869 ± 97 718 ± 124 −150 ± 101 −17.3  
Canada 778 ± 75 651 ± 32 −127 ± 51 −16.3  
Germany* 712 ± 68 613 ± 28 −99 ± 42 −13.9  
Australia# 709 ± 71 619 ± 21 −89 ± 52 −12.5  
United States 651 ± 16 578 ± 14 −73 ± 18 −11.2  
B: Multi-level regression analyses for changes in race times for the annual top ten women between 1985 and 2012
Country ß SE ( ß ) Stand. ß T P
Japan# −5.152 0.528 −0.527 −9.763 < 0.001
Canada −4.932 0.521 −0.523 −9.472 < 0.001
Germany* −4.310 0.422 −0.560 −10.205 < 0.001
Australia# −6.441 0.642 −0.591 −10.034 < 0.001
United States −1.180 0.192 −0.352 −6.149 < 0.001
C: Multi-level regression analyses for change in race times for the annual top ten women between 1985 and 2012 with correction for multiple participations
Country ß SE ( ß ) Stand. ß T P
Japan# −5.152 0.528 −0.527 −9.763 < 0.001
Canada −4.932 0.521 −0.523 −9.472 < 0.001
Germany* −4.310 0.422 −0.560 −10.205 < 0.001
Australia# −6.441 0.642 −0.591 −10.034 < 0.001
United States −1.180 0.192 −0.352 −6.149 < 0.001
  1. * = For German women, the first year with at least ten finishers was in 1989, # = for Australian women, the first year with at least ten finishers was in 1991, # = for Japanese women, 2010 was the last year with at least ten finishers.