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Table 1 Physical and physiological characteristics at baseline and 12weeks for control, HRR, and ACE-3ZM groups. (Values are mean ± SD)

From: Is a threshold-based model a superior method to the relative percent concept for establishing individual exercise intensity? a randomized controlled trial

Parameter Control group HRR group ACE-3ZM group
(n = 12; women = 7, men = 5) (n = 12; women = 6, men = 6) (n = 12; women = 6, men = 6)
Baseline 12weeks Baseline 12weeks Baseline 12weeks
Age (yr) 33.5 ± 7.0 ____ 33.0 ± 9.8 ____ 31.7 ± 9.6 ____
Height (cm) 165.5 ± 9.6 ____ 170.3 ± 7.1 ____ 169.3 ± 12.7 ____
Body mass (kg) 72.1 ± 9.6 72.2 ± 9.2 73.3 ± 12.4 73.8 ± 12.2* 72.8 ± 15.7 72.8 ± 15.5
Waist circumference (cm) 81.8 ± 8.4 82.0 ± 8.2 81.7 ± 8.3 82.5 ± 8.4* 80.1 ± 11.3 79.8 ± 10.8
Body fat (%) 19.8 ± 5.9 20.6 ± 5.4* 16.1 ± 5.1 16.6 ± 5.2* 19.5 ± 6.4 18.7 ± 6.2*‡
Resting HR (bmin−1) 64.6 ± 12.2 65.2 ± 8.9 59.4 ± 11.6 59.3 ± 7.6 69.1 ± 7.4 65.1 ± 3.7
Maximal HR (bmin−1) 179.0 ± 14.0 180.6 ± 12.3 180.9 ± 14.3 182.3 ± 12.0 182.4 ± 12.8 184.5 ± 12.9*
VO2max (mLkg−1min−1) 30.4 ± 6.4 29.9 ± 6.0 34.9 ± 5.3 36.6 ± 5.4*† 34.3 ± 9.0 38.3 ± 9.2*‡
Systolic BP (mmHg) 118.4 ± 9.7 120.0 ± 8.9 117.4 ± 6.8 119.3 ± 5.3 117.9 ± 9.8 115.9 ± 7.1
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 78.4 ± 8.9 80.5 ± 4.9 79.4 ± 3.7 78.6 ± 4.8 73.7 ± 11.2 74.0 ± 9.1
Total cholesterol (mgdL−1) 192.1 ± 32.9 194.4 ± 28.0 188.4 ± 23.8 188.9 ± 23.8 179.0 ± 47.1 168.3 ± 30.0
HDL cholesterol (mgdL−1) 52.0 ± 21.9 50.5 ± 19.1 53.3 ± 14.5 55.0 ± 14.7 51.8 ± 20.9 60.2 ± 20.3*‡
LDL cholesterol (mgdL−1) 111.0 ± 29.2 113.1 ± 25.8 110.2 ± 25.6 109.7 ± 22.4 92.2 ± 28.8 85.9 ± 27.7*
Triglycerides (mgdL−1) 115.4 ± 41.5 123.2 ± 40.8 118.2 ± 70.4 120.3 ± 57.5 94.8 ± 45.9 97.5 ± 33.0
Blood Glucose (mgdL−1) 88.5 ± 5.5 89.8 ± 7.1 90.1 ± 5.1 89.8 ± 5.1 92.4 ± 10.2 90.1 ± 4.9
  1. *Within-group change is significantly different from baseline, p < 0.05; † Change from baseline is significantly different than control group, p < 0.05; ‡ Change from baseline is significantly different than control and HRR groups, p < 0.05