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Table 1 Effects of simulated game activities on isokinetic parameters for dominant limbs of handball athletes

From: Effect of fatigue caused by a simulated handball game on ball throwing velocity, shoulder muscle strength and balance ratio: a prospective study

  Before After P value ES IC
External rotator
 Positive peak torque at 60 deg.s−1 (Nm) 43.3 ± 7.7* 40.6 ± 6.4 0.02 0.38 −0.13 to −0.63
 Positive total work at 60 deg.s−1 (J) 51.7 ± 9.8* 46.7 ± 8.5 0.01 0.54 −0.24 to-0.84
 Positive peak torque at 300 deg.s−1 (Nm) 35.2 ± 5.0 34.5 ± 2.5 0.41 0.17 0.19 to −0.53
 Average power at 300 deg.s−1 (W) 65.3 ± 14.4 59.2 ± 10.3 0.12 0.48 0.032 to −0.99
 Negative peak torque at 90 deg.s−1 (Nm) 45.2 ± 9.8 38.9 ± 9.5 0.06 0.65 −0.096 to −1.2
 Negative peak torque at 300 deg.s−1 (Nm) 44.7 ± 6.2* 40.4 ± 4.5 0.04 0.79  
Internal rotator
 Positive peak torque at 60 deg.s−1 (Nm) 71.3 ± 13.7* 60.9 ± 10.2 0.01 0.86 −0.37 to −1.3
 Positive total work at 60 deg.s−1 (J) 90.9 ± 16.9* 77.8 ± 13.1 0.00 0.86 −0.86 to −0.86
 Positive peak torque at 300 deg.s−1 (Nm) 66.5 ± 12.3* 61.3 ± 12.3 0.00 0.42 −0.42 to −0.42
 Average power at 300 deg.s−1 (W) 113.3 ± 29.4* 94.8 ± 29.1 0.02 0.63 −0.22 to −1
 Negative peak torque at 90 deg.s−1 (Nm) 79.8 ± 13.6 68.9 ± 17.2 0.06 0.70 −0.1 to −1.3
 Negative peak torque at 300 deg.s−1 (Nm) 69.9 ± 14.6 62.9 ± 12.9 0.16 0.51 0.051 to −1.1
Balance ratios
 Conventional ratio 0.61 ± 0.1 0.67 ± 0.1 0.063 0.60 −0.081 to −1.1
 Functional ratio 0.68 ± 0.1 0.67 ± 0.2 0.806 0.06 0.37 to −0.49
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. ES effect size, IC interval confidence
  2. *p < 0.05, differs from after, Student t test