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Table 2 Summary of within and between group changes on clinical outcomes

From: The feasibility of progressive resistance training in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a pilot randomized controlled trial

Outcome Measure PRT (n = 7) Control (n = 6) P (between groups) Effect Size (95 % CI)a
Week 0 Week 12 P Week 0 Week 12 P
Physiological outcomes         
 Body weight (kg) 117.4 (36.6) 118.9 (35.4) 0.06 86.0 (26.7) 86.0 (26.8) 0.77 0.01 0.49 [0.61,3.83]
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 41.3 (12.5) 41.7 (12.1) 0.12 33.8 (9.4) 33.8 (9.4) N/A 0.04 0.37[0.04,1.20]
 Waist Circumference (cm) 123.6 (29.0) 121.5 (29.1) 0.04 95.9 (16.3) 96.6 (17.2) 0.20 0.03 0.40b
 Fat mass (kg) 58.6 (23.3) 59.0 (22.7) 0.50 39.6 (18.3) 40.6 (19.2) 0.24 0.59 0.03[-2.96,1.79]
 Lean mass (kg) 54.7 (12.5) 56.0 (11.3) 0.16 43.9 (10.4) 43.0 (10.0) 0.23 0.01 0.49b
 Fat-free mass (kg) 57.4 (13.6) 58.8 (11.9) 0.13 46.8 (10.8) 46.0 (10.4) 0.26 0.005 0.57b
 Percent body fat (%) 49.7 (8.4) 49.6 (7.6) 0.84 45.2 (10.7) 46.1 (11.2) 0.22 0.36 0.08[-2.66,1.06]
 HbA1c (%) 5.3 (0.4) 5.1 (0.3) 0.037 5.1 (0.3) 5.2 (0.4) 0.24 0.03 0.39b
 Fasting insulin (mU/L) 21 (11) 20 (12) 0.49 9 (5) 10 (6) 0.18 0.24 0.14[-5.50,1.55]
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 4.7 (0.8) 4.9 (0.7) 0.03 4.8 (0.4) 4.9 (0.4) 0.71 0.18 0.17[-0.08,0.40]
 HOMA-2 2.62 (1.33) 2.56 (1.43) 0.72 1.19 (0.64) 1.24 (0.71) 0.19 0.27 0.11[-0.65,0.20]
 hsCRP (mg/L) 8.9 (10.7) 8.0 (10.8) 0.38 3.6 (5.1) 3.9 (5.4) 0.12 0.36 0.09[-3.57,1.41]
 Testosterone (nmol/L) 1.5 (0.3) 1.7 (0.5) 0.38 1.7 (0.4) 1.8 (0.3) 0.11 0.91 0.00[-0.44,0.49]
 SHBG (nmol/L) 32 (26) 27 (22) 0.39 47 (25) 47 (25) 0.36 0.25 0.13[-22.58,6.50]
 Free androgen index (%) 8.6 (7.3) 9.8 (6.6) 0.26 4.5 (2.7) 4.7 (2.7) 0.11 0.18 0.17[-0.82,3.83]
Functional outcomes         
 Upper body strength 190.2 (42.5) 211.5 (52.1) 0.10 141.3 (53.0) 134 (51.0) 0.12 0.06 0.33b
 Lower body strength 258.7 (67.2) 313.2 (90.3) 0.04 221.8 (59.5) 214.8 (64.9) 0.08 0.03 0.45b
Psychological outcomes         
  PCOSQ         
 Emotions 4.4 (0.6) 5.1 (0.5) 0.02 3.2 (1.0) 3.1 (0.9) 0.13 0.003 0.60[0.53,1.95]
 Body hair 4.9 (2.0) 4.5 (1.5) 0.37 4.2 (1.7) 4.2 (1.9) 1.0 0.58 0.03[-1.22,0.71]
 Weight 3.3(1.7) 4.1(1.7) 0.06 2.4 (1.5) 2.3 (1.5) 0.70 0.04 0.35[0.03,1.796]
 Infertility problems 0.9 (0.4) 3.5 (0.9) 0.01 1.1 (0.6) 1.9 (1.2) 0.11 0.03 0.41b
 Menstrual problems 4.1 (0.8) 3.9 (0.9) 0.52 3.0 (1.4) 3.0 (1.4) N/A 0.92 0.00[-1.06,0.96]
  SF-36         
 Physical Functioning 83.0 (10.4) 89.3 (12.4) 0.05 94.2 (5.8) 90.8 (10.7) 0.18 0.02 0.42b
 Role Physical 21.4 (4.9) 22.3 (3.3) 0.36 17.7 (7.3) 18.8 (7.9) 0.70 0.70 0.02[-4.58,6.58]
 Bodily Pain 67.3 (20.0) 65.3 (18.0) 0.55 45.2 (28.3) 48.8 (22.0) 0.36 0.87 0.00[-10.46,9.00]
 General Health 49.0 (22.3) 54.3 (25.2) 0.27 53.3 (14.4) 49.2 (10.7) 0.19 0.14 0.20[-3.73,22.58]
 Vitality 47.3 (26.2) 56.2 (21.3) 0.12 35.4 (26.4) 30.2 (22.9) 0.29 0.02 0.45b
 Social Functioning 75.0 (14.4) 89.3 (15.2) 0.08 60.4 (18.4) 52.1 (9.4) 0.24 0.002 0.64b
 Role Emotional 18.0 (5.8) 23.0 (4.1) 0.10 9.7 (8.2) 8.3 (7.5) 0.36 0.009 0.51b
 Mental Health 71.4 (22.6) 84.2 (17.2) 0.06 51.7 (20.7) 46.7 (20.7) 0.31 0.009 0.52b
  DASS-21         
 Depression 10.8 (6.8) 5.4 (5.4) 0.050 12.7 (9.6) 14.7 (9.0) 0.20 0.01 0.50b
 Anxiety 10.3 (5.6) 7.4 (7.0) 0.082 12.3 (11.2) 14.3 (10.8) 0.11 0.03 0.41b
 Stress 12.6 (7.9) 9.7 (9.3) 0.220 21.7 (10.9) 23.0 (11.2) 0.33 0.17 0.18 [-11.11,2.25]
  Exercise Self Efficacy Scale 29.4 (4.7) 31.3 (4.2) 0.095 32.5 (5.3) 30.0 (4.0) 0.10 0.04 0.37b
  1. a = parametric between groups effect sizes and their confidence intervals
  2. b = sample size too small to estimate the confidence intervals
  3. Data reported as mean (standard deviation). Abbreviations: HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, HOMA-2 Homeostatic model of assessment 2, CRP c-reactive protein, SHBG sex hormone binding globulin, PCOSQ Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire, SF-36 Medical Outcomes Trust Short Form-36, DASS-21 Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21, Effect size = Cohen’s d