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Table 2 Demographic and behavioral characteristics of 60 study athletes, comparison between the 24 athletes with LBP and 36 athletes without LBP episodes

From: Low back pain and FokI (rs2228570) polymorphism of vitamin D receptor in athletes

Characteristic All study athletes (n = 60) LBP (n = 24) No-LBP (n = 36) P value
Sport activity, hours/week, mean ± SD 7.8 ± 3.3 7.4 ± 3.4 8.1 ± 3.2 0.16b
Elite (national/international experience), n (%) 23 (38.3) 7 (29.2) 16 (44.4) 0.23c
Non-elite, n (%) 37 (61.7) 17 (70.8) 20 (55.6) 0.23c
Female, n (%) 25 (41.7) 11 (45.8) 14 (38.9) 0.59c
Male, n (%) 35 (58.3) 13 (54.2) 22 (61.1) 0.59c
Age, years, mean ± SD 33.9 ± 13.3 31.6 ± 12.4 35.5 ± 13.8 0.26b
Age at first LBP episode, years, mean ± SD 23.1 ± 9.5 23.1 ± 9.5
Number of LBP episodes, mean ± SD 3.1 ± 3.0 3.1 ± 3.0
Weight, kg, mean ± SD 72.4 ± 14.7 74.1 ± 11.6 71.2 ± 16.5 0.33b
Height, m, mean ± SD 174.9 ± 8.3 176.2 ± 7.6 174.1 ± 8.8 0. 46b
BMI, kg/m2, mean ± SD 23.5 ± 3.5 23.8 ± 3.0 23.2 ± 3.9 0.29b
BMI ≥ 25, kg/m2, n (%) 15 (25.0) 6 (25.0) 9 (25.0) 1.00c
University/College, n (%) 40 (66.7) 19 (79.2) 21 (58.3) 0.094c
Married or separated/divorced, n (%) 25 (41.7) 8 (33.3) 17 (47.2) 0.28c
Current smoker, n (%) 7 (11.7) 3 (12.5) 4 (11.1) 1.00d
Ever (current or past) smoker, n (%) 17 (28.3) 7 (29.2) 10 (27.8) 0.91c
6 or more cigarettes/day ever smoker, n (%) 9 (15.0) 4 (16.7) 5 (13.9) 1.00d
11 or more cigarettes/day ever smoker, n (%) 6 (10.0%) 2 (8.3) 4 (11.1) 1.00d
Coffee drinkers, n (%) 50 (83.3) 22 (91.7) 28 (77.8) 0.29d
3 or more cups of coffee a/day, n (%) 19 (31.7) 9 (37.5) 10 (27.8) 0.43c
Exposure to vibrations ≥2 h/day 22 (36.7) 13 (54.2) 9 (25.0) 0.022c
Physical job demand more than sedentary 27 (45.0) 11 (45.8) 16 (44.4) 0.92c
Physical job demand more than medium 12 (20.0) 6 (25.0) 6 (16.7) 0.52d
Family history of lumbar pathologies 6 (10.0) 5 (20.8) 1 (2.8) 0.033d
  1. aItalian espresso cups of coffee
  2. bP comparison of LBP and no-LBP by two-tailed Mann-Whitney U-test
  3. cP comparison of LBP and no-LBP by two-tailed Pearson’s chi squared test
  4. dP comparison of LBP and no-LBP by two-tailed Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate