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Table 2 Ranges of motions (RoMs) and maximal external joint moments. RoM [°] of middle to upper back (RoMmub), lower to middle back (RoMlmb), pelvis to lower back (RoMplb), hip (RoMh) and knee (RoMk), lumbar and thoracic curvature [1/m] at starting (Cl,s, Ct,s) and reversal point (Cl,rp, Ct,rp) as well as maximal joint moments [Nm/kg] of back (Mb,max), hip (Mh,max) and knee (Mk,max) in the sagittal plane for the different types (BEh, BEs) and versions (1L, 2L) of BE were given

From: Loading conditions in the spine, hip and knee during different executions of back extension exercises

   RoMmub RoMlmb RoMplb RoMh RoMk Cl,s Cl,rp Ct,s Ct,rp Mb,max Mh,max Mk,max
   [°] [°] [°] [°] [°] [1/m] [1/m] [1/m] [1/m] [Nm/kg] [Nm/kg] [Nm/kg]
BEh 1L 8.9 ± 3.7 14.8 ± 6.0 16.6 ± 5.0 29.6 ± 7.4 5.3 ± 2.9 5.6 ± 2.1 -0.1 ± 1.1 2.4 ± 0.7 1.8 ± 0.8 1 ± 0.2 1.1 ± 0.2 -0.8 ± 0.2
2L 10 ± 4.5 12.5 ± 5.1 17.4 ± 5.0 36.3 ± 7.9 7.4 ± 3.6 5.2 ± 2.0 0 ± 1.2 2.6 ± 0.6 1.8 ± 0.8 1.1 ± 0.2 0.8 ± 0.1 -0.5 ± 0.1
BEs 1L 16.6 ± 4.2 36 ± 9.3 11.7 ± 7.3 14.1 ± 9.9 2.9 ± 2.3 5.7 ± 2.2 0 ± 1.9 2 ± 0.7 3.3 ± 0.6 0.9 ± 0.2 0.9 ± 0.2 -0.6 ± 0.2
2L 14.7 ± 3.2 35.9 ± 10.1 13.8 ± 8.6 15.5 ± 11.7 3.5 ± 3.4 5.4 ± 2.1 -0.6 ± 1.5 2.2 ± 0.7 3.3 ± 0.6 1 ± 0.2 0.7 ± 0.1 -0.4 ± 0.1