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Table 1 Maximal normalised muscle forces and standard deviation of 11 muscles for 23 different strength exercise variations

From: Towards evidence based strength training: a comparison of muscle forces during deadlifts, goodmornings and split squats

     Quadriceps Hamstrings m. gluteus maximus
     rf vi vl vm bl bs sm st lp ip mp
   LL TA [N/kg] [N/kg] [N/kg] [N/kg] [N/kg] [N/kg] [N/kg] [N/kg] [N/kg] [N/kg] [N/kg]
GM 25    1 ± 2 0 ± 1 0 ± 1 0 ± 1 10 ± 3 15 ± 6 14 ± 5 1 ± 1 3 ± 1 12 ± 5 3 ± 2
DL 25    8 ± 5 18 ± 4 30 ± 4 21 ± 5 13 ± 3 6 ± 5 28 ± 5 3 ± 2 6 ± 3 20 ± 4 8 ± 2
DL 50    10 ± 6 22 ± 4 34 ± 6 25 ± 6 15 ± 4 8 ± 5 30 ± 5 5 ± 3 8 ± 3 21 ± 3 11 ± 2
Split Squat 25 front 55% 60° 5 ± 8 22 ± 3 33 ± 3 26 ± 5 12 ± 8 3 ± 2 22 ± 7 2 ± 0 10 ± 3 24 ± 3 4 ± 2
55% 75° 1 ± 1 21 ± 4 31 ± 4 24 ± 7 12 ± 6 4 ± 2 19 ± 7 2 ± 1 10 ± 4 24 ± 5 3 ± 1
55% 90° 2 ± 3 19 ± 5 28 ± 7 22 ± 7 12 ± 6 5 ± 3 19 ± 8 1 ± 1 9 ± 5 23 ± 5 3 ± 1
70% 60° 6 ± 10 22 ± 3 31 ± 5 28 ± 4 17 ± 7 3 ± 2 26 ± 7 2 ± 0 12 ± 3 25 ± 3 4 ± 2
70% 75° 2 ± 4 21 ± 4 32 ± 4 25 ± 6 14 ± 7 4 ± 2 22 ± 7 2 ± 1 11 ± 3 25 ± 4 3 ± 2
70% 90° 6 ± 10 20 ± 5 30 ± 6 25 ± 7 16 ± 6 5 ± 2 24 ± 10 2 ± 1 10 ± 4 25 ± 4 4 ± 2
85% 60° 6 ± 12 22 ± 2 33 ± 4 29 ± 3 21 ± 5 3 ± 2 34 ± 8 3 ± 1 11 ± 4 25 ± 3 7 ± 4
85% 75° 4 ± 9 21 ± 3 33 ± 5 26 ± 5 16 ± 7 3 ± 2 27 ± 8 2 ± 1 10 ± 3 24 ± 3 4 ± 2
85% 90° 1 ± 2 20 ± 4 32 ± 6 24 ± 7 16 ± 6 4 ± 3 26 ± 9 2 ± 2 11 ± 3 25 ± 3 4 ± 2
85% 105° 5 ± 7 17 ± 6 22 ± 8 20 ± 8 16 ± 6 5 ± 3 22 ± 10 1 ± 1 10 ± 4 25 ± 4 4 ± 2
rear 55% 60° 15 ± 3 11 ± 2 18 ± 3 17 ± 3 0 ± 0 4 ± 2 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 1 ± 1
55% 75° 15 ± 2 12 ± 2 21 ± 5 20 ± 4 0 ± 0 4 ± 2 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 1 1 ± 1
55% 90° 13 ± 3 14 ± 1 26 ± 6 21 ± 5 0 ± 0 4 ± 2 1 ± 2 1 ± 1 1 ± 0 2 ± 1 2 ± 1
70% 60° 20 ± 5 8 ± 2 11 ± 4 12 ± 3 0 ± 0 6 ± 3 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0
70% 75° 18 ± 5 10 ± 2 15 ± 5 15 ± 4 0 ± 0 5 ± 3 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0
70% 90° 14 ± 3 12 ± 2 22 ± 5 19 ± 5 0 ± 0 5 ± 2 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 1 1 ± 1
85% 60° 27 ± 4 5 ± 3 5 ± 5 7 ± 3 0 ± 0 7 ± 5 0 ± 1 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0
85% 75° 26 ± 4 7 ± 3 8 ± 6 9 ± 5 0 ± 0 7 ± 4 0 ± 1 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0
85% 90° 22 ± 6 11 ± 2 17 ± 5 16 ± 5 0 ± 0 6 ± 3 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0
85% 105° 18 ± 6 12 ± 2 20 ± 6 17 ± 4 0 ± 0 6 ± 3 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0 0 ± 0
  1. GM goodmorning, DL deadlifts, LL % of participants’ leg length, TA tibia angle relative to the ground, Added weight additional weight on the barbell as % of participant’s bodyweight. Quadriceps, including m. vastus lateralis (vl), m vastus intermedius (vi), m. vastus medialis (vm) and M. rectus femoris (rf); Hamstrings including m. biceps femoris short head (bs), m. biceps femoris long head (bl), m. semimembranosus (sm) and m. semitendinosus (st); m. gluteus maximus muscles, including three different parts, the lateral part (lp), the intermedial part (ip), and the medial part (mp) were examined