Skip to main content

Table 1 Description of selected studies

From: Hormonal aspects of overtraining syndrome: a systematic review

Authorship, year of publication and reference Number of subjects Sport(s) Type of athletes and type of analysis Basal levels Functional tests and responses
Aissa et al., 1999 [25] 36 Volleyball, soccer and karate AA (CC) ↓IGFBP-3/nl IGF-1/nl IGFBP-1/↑IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio -
Aubry et al., 2015 [2] 31 Triathlon AA (RRH) - OTP (↓serum catecholamines)
Barron et al., 1985 [38] 6 Long distance running AA (CC, CRH) ↑cortisol/↑ACTH ITT (↓cortisol/↓ACTH)
Booth CK et al., 2006 [16] 43 Multiple (military activities) PHA (CHB) - OTP (↓T/C/nl free T/nl cortisol)
Coutts et al., 2007 [13] 18 Rugby PHA (CHB, RRH) - OTP (Nl total T/↓Total T/↓T/C/nl ACTH/nl cortisol/nl insulin/nl nocturnal urinary catecholamines)
Coutts et al., 2007 [14] 7 Rugby PHA (CHB) - OTP (↓T/C/nl total T/nl cortisol)
Coutts et al., 2007 [15] 16 Rugby PHA (RRH) - OTP (Nl T// nl total T/nl cortisol)
Elloumi et al., 2005 [18] 11 Rugby AA (CC, CRH, RRH) Nl IGF-1/nl IGFBP-3 ME after OTP (↓IGFBP-3/↑IGF-1/nl IGF-1/↑IGF-1/IGBP-3 ratio)
Fry et al., 2006 [17] 16 Weight-lifting PHA (CHB, RRH) - OTP (↑Nocturnal urinary Catecholamines/↓muscle beta2 receptors)
Fry et al., 1998 [27] 17 Weight lifting AA (CC, RRH) Nl GH/nl Pep F/↓TotalT/nl freeT, OTP (Nl GH/Nl Pep F/↓TotalT/↓freeT/↓T/C/↓FreelT/C)
Fry et al., 1994 [31] 17 Weight-lifting AA (CC, CRH) Nl Plasma Catecholamines ME (↑Plasma Catecholamines)
Fry et al., 1992 [34] 5 Middle distance running PHA (CHB) - OTP (Nl total T/nl cortisol/nl SHBG/nl LH/nl FSH/nl T/C)
Hedelin et al., 2000 [23] 9 Rowing PHA (CHB) - CSP (↓ cortisol/nl total T)
Hoogeveen et al., 1996 [30] 10 Cycling PHA (CHB, CB) - a. Resting levels after OTP (Nl total T/nl LH/nl cortisol)
b. ME after OTP (Nl total T/nl LH/nl cortisol)
Hooper et al., 1993 [32] 14 Swimming AA (CC) ↑Norepinephrine -
Hug et al., 2003 [22] 11 Cycling PHA (CHB) - OTP (↑Total T/↑free T/↓cortisol/nl SHBG/↓GH/nl IGF-1/nl IGFBP-3/nl T/C)
Hynynem et al., 2006 24 Multiple (military activities) AA (CC) Nl nocturnal catecholamines/nl nocturnal cortisol -
Kraemer et al., 2004 [21] 25 Soccer PHA (CHB, RRH) - CSP (Nl Total T/nl cortisol)
Lehmann et al., 1992 [35] 8 Middle distance running PHA (CHB, CB) - a. Resting levels after OTP (↓cortisol/↓aldosterone, nl total T/nl insulin/nl pep C, nl GH/nl prolactin/nl FSH/nl LH/nl TSH/nl T3/nl T4, ↓nocturnal urinary catecholamines/nl plasma catecholamines)
b. ME after OTP (↓cortisol/↓aldosterone/nl testosterone/insuli/nl pepC/nl GH/nl prolactina/nl FSH/nl LH/nl TSH/nl plasma catecholamines)
Lehmann et al., 1990 [36] 9 Middle distance run PHA (CHB, CB) - a. Resting levels after OTP (Nl cortisol/↑aldosterone/nl total T/nl insulin/nl pep C/nl GH/nl prolactin/nl FSH/nl LH/nl TSH/nl T3/nl T4/↓NUC/nl plasma catecholamines/nl 24 h UFC)
b. ME after OTP (Nl cortisol/↑aldosterone/nl testosterone/nl insulin/nl pepC/nl GH/↓prolactin, nl/FSH/nl LH/↓TSH/↓ plasma catecholamines)
Le Meur et al., 2014 [3] 35 Triathlon PHA (CHB, RRH) - OTP + CSP (↓serum catecholamines)
Le Meur et al., 2013 [4] 35 Running PHA (CHB, RRH) - OTP (Nl serum catecholamines)
Mackinnon et al., 1997 [29] 24 Swimming AA (CC) ↓NUC Nl plasma cathecolamines/nl T/C/nl total T -
Meeusen et al., 2010 [9] 8 Long distance run/Triathlon/Cycling/Motor Cross/Short distance run AA (CC, CRH) ↑GH/↑ACTH TBE (OTS compared to OR) (↓GH/↓ACTH)
Meeusen et al., 2004 [20] 7 Cycling AA (CC, CRH) Nl cortisol, prolactin/nl GH/nl ACTH TBE (OTS compared to control) (↓GH/↓ACTH/↓cortisol/↓prolactin)
Moore et al., 2007 [12] 9 American football PHA (CHB) - OTP (↓Total T/nl cortisol/nl T/C)
Nederhof et al., 2008 [11] 3 Skaters AA (CC, CRH) ↓cortisol/nl ACTH TBE (nl ACTH/nl cortisol)
O’Connor et al., 1989 [37] 14 women (3 NFOR Swmming AA (CC) ↑16 h salivary cortisol -
Rietjens GJ et al., 2005 [19] 7 Not specified PHA (CRH, CHB, RRH, CB) Nl GH/nl IGF-1/nl ACTH/nl cortisol a. Resting levels after OTP (Nl GH/nl IGF-1/nl ACTH/nl cortisol)
b. Short ITT after OTP (Nl GH/nl IGF-1/nl ACTH/nl cortisol)
Roberts et al., 1993 [33] 5 ? PHA (CHB) - OTP (↓ total T/↑cortisol/↓T/C/↓fertility)
Schmikli et al., 2012 [5] 21 Soccer AA (CC, CRH) ↓GH/nl ACTH/nl cortisol ME (↓GH/↓ACTH/nl cortisol)
Schmikli et al., 2011 [7] 15 Soccer/Middle-long distance run AA (CC, CRH) nl cortisol/nl ACTH ME (↓cortisol/decoupled ACTH to cortisol response/nl ACTH)
Slivka et al., 2010 [10] 8 Cycling, Triathlon PHA (CHB, CB) - a. ME after OTP (↓salivary cortisol/↓salivary testosterone/↑T/C)
b. Resting levels after OTP (↓salivary cortisol/nl salivary testosterone)
Steinacker et al., 2000 [24] 10 Rowing PHA (CHB) - OTP (Nl total T, nl cortisol, nl DHEA-S/↓LH/↓FSH/nl aldosterone/↓insulin/↓pep C/nl prolactin/↑GH)
Tanskanen et al., 2011 [6] Not Specified Multiple (military) AA (CC, CRH) nl T/C ratio/↑cortisol/↑SHBG ME (↓cortisol)
Thiel et al., 2011 [8] 3 Tennis PHA (CHB) - OTP (↓IGF-1/nl T/C)
Urhausen et al., 1998 [26] 17 Cycling, triathlon AA (CC, RRH) Nl Nocturnal Cathecolamines/nl GH/nl cortisol/nl insulin/nl LH/nl FSH/testosterone/nl SHBG/nl T/SHBG/nl T/C/↑ACTH ME (↓GH/↓ACTH/↓insulin/nl cortisol)
Uusitalo et al., 1998 [28] 15 Middle-distance running, skiing, triathlon and orienting. PHA (CHB, RRH, CRH) - a. Resting levels after OTP (Nl cortisol/nl serum catecholamines/nl testosterone)
b. ME after OTP (↓serum adrenaline/nl serum noradrenaline/↓cortisol)
  1. General: N number of subjects, Nl normal levels, NS Not Specified
  2. Parameters: Pep F Peptide F (preproencephaline), TotalT Total testosterone, freeT free testosterone, T/C Total Testosterone/Cortisol ratio; freeT/C Free Testosterone/Cortisol ratio
  3. Performed tests: ME Maximal Exercises, TBE Two-Bout Protocol Exercise, ITT insulin tolerance test, OTP Overload Training Program, CSP Competition Season Period
  4. Studies athletes: PHA Previously Healthy Athletes, AA Athletes affected by OTS/NFOR/FOR
  5. Type of analysis: CC = Basal levels compared with healthy athletes; CHB = Resting hormone levels in FOR-induced athletes compared to previous basal levels of the same subjects when previously healthy; CRH = Acute hormone response to stimulation tests compared to acute response in healthy athletes; RRH = Resting hormone levels to OTP in athletes previously affected by OTS/NFOR/FOR compared to basal hormones in healthy athletes; CB = Acute hormone responses compared to basal levels in the same affected athletes