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Table 1 Peak angles (±SD) for double-leg squats between the limbs of the AKP group in both environments

From: Limb symmetry during double-leg squats and single-leg squats on land and in water in adults with long-standing unilateral anterior knee pain; a cross sectional study

  Land Pool
  Unaffected Affected d Unaffected Affected d
Shank angle (°) 21.3 ± 8.0 21.8 ± 8.0 0.05 18.3 ± 8.4 22.0 ± 6.3 0.50
Thigh angle (°) 59.6 ± 27.9 62.6 ± 22.6 0.12 65.4 ± 22.5 68.9 ± 21.9 0.16
Knee flexion (°) 94.4 ± 16.7 90.2 ± 19.5 −0.23 95.2 ± 10.4 91.6 ± 13.4 −0.27
Hip flexion (°) 73.8 ± 17.0 71.7 ± 31.1 −0.08 77.8 ± 19.7 75.5 ± 15.8 −0.10
Shank medial deviation (°) 9.2 ± 5.3 8.2 ± 5.7 −0.20 10.0 ± 5.0 11.9 ± 4.2b 0.42
Thigh lateral deviation (°) 10.3 ± 8.5 13.6 ± 9.4 0.37 12.4 ± 10.4 20.6 ± 9.0b 0.84*
Hip adduction (°) 6.0 ± 8.5 3.6 ± 5.6 −0.33 4.1 ± 3.8 3.0 ± 3.1 −0.32
Knee adduction (°) 17.2 ± 12.8 20.0 ± 13.7 0.21 19.8 ± 13.0 30.3 ± 11.6a 0.85*
Hip abduction (°) 12.0 ± 9.0 12.7 ± 9.9 0.07 10.8 ± 8.0 18.8 ± 10.7b 0.85*
Knee abduction (°) 3.8 ± 3.1 2.1 ± 2.5 −0.58 3.4 ± 2.8 3.7 ± 3.7 0.08
  1. *indicates significant difference between limbs at p < 0.05
  2. aindicates large within-limb effect size between environments at Cohen’s d > 0.8
  3. bindicates moderate within-limb effect size between environments at Cohen’s d > 0.5