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Table 2 Peak angles (±SD) for single-leg squats between the limbs of the AKP group in both environments

From: Limb symmetry during double-leg squats and single-leg squats on land and in water in adults with long-standing unilateral anterior knee pain; a cross sectional study

  Land Pool
  Unaffected Affected Cohen’s d Unaffected Affected Cohen’s d
Shank angle (°) 26.0 ± 10.0 24.0 ± 5.8 −0.25 25.8 ± 8.4 27.8 ± 7.7b 0.25
Thigh angle (°) 36.1 ± 14.7 36.2 ± 11.8 0.00 51.3 ± 9.0a 49.1 ± 8.6a −0.25
Thorax angle (°) 23.8 ± 11.5 23.2 ± 9.8 −0.06 17.9 ± 11.2b 16.2 ± 8.6b −0.16
Knee flexion (°) 65.0 ± 13.5 61.6 ± 10.4 −0.28 78.1 ± 13.4a 76.0 ± 12.1a −0.17
Hip flexion (°) 42.8 ± 12.9 33.7 ± 11.4 −0.75* 59.8 ± 11.3a 42.5 ± 9.6a −1.37*
Trunk flexion (°) 20.6 ± 13.4 19.6 ± 11.2 −0.08 21.1 ± 9.4 12.4 ± 7.4b −1.03*
Shank medial deviation (°) 2.4 ± 2.3 7.5 ± 4.8 1.35* 10.4 ± 6.7a 11.3 ± 7.4b 0.13
Thigh lateral deviation (°) 5.2 ± 4.1 6.3 ± 5.7 0.22 8.7 ± 8.5c 9.7 ± 7.3b 0.13
Thorax lateral deviation (°) 5.0 ± 6.0 3.5 ± 2.9 −0.31 3.5 ± 2.8 2.6 ± 2.6 −0.34
Hip adduction (°) 9.4 ± 8.7 6.1 ± 4.2 −0.49 6.4 ± 5.3 4.9 ± 2.9 −0.51
Knee adduction (°) 9.5 ± 7.7 12.3 ± 7.9 0.36 19.0 ± 13.2a 19.7 ± 12.3b 0.05
Hip abduction (°) 7.4 ± 6.3 5.7 ± 5.8 −0.28 7.8 ± 7.5 11.1 ± 8.1b 0.42
Knee abduction (°) 4.2 ± 2.6 2.2 ± 1.6 −0.89* 7.8 ± 6.3b 2.3 ± 2.2 −1.18*
Trunk lateral tilt (°) 5.3 ± 4.8 8.2 ± 4.4 0.63* 4.3 ± 2.4 3.6 ± 3.0a 0.23
  1. *indicates significant difference between limbs at p < 0.05
  2. aindicates large within-limb effect size between environments at Cohen’s d > 0.8
  3. bindicates moderate within-limb effect size between environments at Cohen’s d > 0.8