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Table 3 Asymmetry index score (±SD) between the groups in both environments

From: Limb symmetry during double-leg squats and single-leg squats on land and in water in adults with long-standing unilateral anterior knee pain; a cross sectional study

   Land Pool
   AKP Control d AKP Control d
Double-leg Squat
  Shank AP (°) 5.9 ± 1.1 5.4 ± 1.2 0.40 5.9 ± 1.6 5.8 ± 1.4 0.06
  Thigh AP (°) 5.3 ± 0.7 5.0 ± 1.4 0.33 5.3 ± 0.5 5.1 ± 1.7 0.12
  Knee flexion (°) 0.3 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.4 −0.62* 1.3 ± 1.3a 0.5 ± 0.5 0.76a
  Hip flexion (°) 1.4 ± 0.8 1.3 ± 0.7 0.11 1.6 ± 1.1 1.7 ± 1.7 −0.09
  Shank ML (°) 1.9 ± 1.3 2.3 ± 1.7 −0.26 2.7 ± 2.1 2.2 ± 2.7 0.20
  Thigh ML (°) 2.9 ± 2.1 3.0 ± 2.2 −0.06 3.6 ± 2.0 3.1 ± 2.2 0.24
  Knee abduction (°) 2.2 ± 2.0 4.8 ± 1.5 −1.48* 3.3 ± 2.5 6.0 ± 1.7b −1.26*
  Hip abduction (°) 2.8 ± 2.0 4.6 ± 2.1 −0.91* 3.0 ± 1.9 7.4 ± 2.6a −1.87*
Single-leg Squat
  Shank AP (°) 5.3 ± 1.4 5.1 ± 1.3 0.15 6.3 ± 1.7 6.3 ± 1.3a −0.13
  Thigh AP (°) 4.9 ± 0.8 5.0 ± 0.8 −0.13 4.8 ± 0.9 5.0 ± 0.9 −0.21
  Thorax AP (°) 4.3 ± 2.1 1.8 ± 1.3 1.48* 2.0 ± 1.4a 2.0 ± 1.7 0.02
  Knee flexion (°) 0.7 ± 0.5 0.7 ± 0.4 0.07 0.7 ± 0.4 2.0 ± 1.7a −1.05*
  Hip flexion (°) 2.2 ± 1.0 1.5 ± 0.6 0.85* 1.3 ± 0.7a 1.4 ± 0.8 −0.14
  Trunk flexion (°) 3.4 ± 1.9 2.3 ± 1.2 0.69* 2.4 ± 1.5b 2.3 ± 1.5 −0.04
  Shank ML (°) 7.0 ± 5.7 2.7 ± 1.6 1.04* 2.4 ± 1.1a 2.6 ± 2.0 −0.13
  Thigh ML (°) 7.1 ± 4.7 3.5 ± 2.4 0.96* 2.8 ± 1.4a 3.9 ± 2.0 −0.66*
  Thorax ML (°) 15.3 ± 14.9 6.1 ± 4.6 0.84* 5.3 ± 4.0a 5.8 ± 3.8 −0.13
  Knee abduction (°) 8.4 ± 7.3 5.0 ± 1.8 0.64* 7.1 ± 3.1 6.0 ± 2.9 0.37
  Hip abduction (°) 7.3 ± 5.6 8.2 ± 6.7 −0.14 7.3 ± 4.6 4.7 ± 2.8b 0.70*
  Trunk lateral tilt (°) 8.1 ± 8.6 5.1 ± 3.0 0.45 11.5 ± 9.4 6.6 ± 4.1 0.67
  1. *indicates significant difference between environments at p < 0.05
  2. aindicates large within groups effect size between environments at Cohen’s d > 0.8
  3. bindicates moderate within groups effect size between environments at Cohen’s d > 0.5