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Table 1 Participants’ characteristics with respect to gait kinematics and walking energy expenditure per trimester

From: Relationship between gait kinematics and walking energy expenditure during pregnancy in South African women

Measure 1st trim. Mean ± SD 2nd trim. Mean ± SD 3rd trim. Mean ± SD Sig. (p)
Participants (n)z 14 20 10  
Age (years) 28.1 ± 5.5 27.1 ± 6.1 26.6 ± 6.6 0.83
Gestation (wks) 12.1 ± 2.2 22.3 ± 2.6 31.4 ± 2.6
Height (cm) 160.8 ± 5.9 160.2 ± 6.8 161.4 ± 7.2 0.89
Mass (kg) 62.7 ± 10.5 71.3 ± 16.6 78.8 ± 14.7 0.08
BMI (kg/m2) 24.3 ± 4.0 27.7 ± 6.2 29.9 ± 4.9 0.08
Mgain (kg) 1.1 ± 3.1a,c 5.3 ± 2.8b,c 13.8 ± 7.9a,b 0.00***
S (m/s) 1.09 ± 0.07 1.10 ± 0.11 1.01 ± 0.19 0.16
Stride length* 0.69 ± 0.06 0.72 ± 0.06 0.70 ± 0.05 0.17
Step width* 0.06 ± 0.02 0.07 ± 0.02 0.07 ± 0.02 0.30
DS time (s) 0.12 ± 0.03 0.11 ± 0.03 0.13 ± 0.06 0.35
COGV (cm) 3.37 ± 0.56 3.55 ± 0.73 3.22 ± 0.726 0.53
COGML (cm) 2.06 ± 0.42a 2.34 ± 0.89b 3.26 ± 0.57a,b 0.001**
REE (kcal/day) 1405.7 ± 183.7 1488.1 ± 190.0 1578.0 ± 216.1 0.12
REE (kcal/kg/day) 22.7 ± 2.6 21.4 ± 2.5 20.9 ± 2.2 0.40
Gross O2 (ml/kg/min) 10.93 ± 2.46 9.66 ± 1.45 10.39 ± 2.01 0.26
Gross O2 (ml/kg/m) 0.17 ± 0.04 0.15 ± 0.02 0.17 ± 0.03 0.16
Net O2 (ml/kg/min) 9.15 ± 3.26 8.04 ± 2.72 8.51 ± 3.69 0.60
Net O2 (ml/kg/m) 0.12 ± 0.04 0.10 ± 0.02 0.12 ± 0.02 0.16
RQ 0.90 ± 0.11b 0.89 ± 0.06a 0.96 ± 0.02a,b 0.04*
  1. a,b,c denotes significance between respective trimesters; Mgain = mass gain from pre-pregnancy (i.e. total mass gain); S = walking speed; DS = double support; COGv = vertical excursion of the centre of gravity; COGML = medio-lateral centre of gravity displacement;* = normalized for leg length; O2 = walking volume of oxygen; RQ = respiratory quotient; Net O2 = energy expenditure only necessary for walking (TEEgait - REE); trim. = trimester; z Several participants were measured in multiple stages