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Table 1 Mean ± SD (range) response time and accuracy for the Stroop, Visual Search and Sternberg cognitive function tests

From: Effects of heat stress and dehydration on cognitive function in elite female field hockey players

  Response Time (ms) Accuracy (%)
Test Level   Hot Moderate Hot Moderate
Fluid No Fluid Fluid No Fluid Fluid No Fluid Fluid No Fluid
Stroop Baseline Pre-exercise 604 ± 90 (473–766) 599 ± 70 (509–739) 606 ± 63 (487–685) 573 ± 64 (497–682) 95.6 ± 3.2 (90–100) 98.1 ± 3.7 (90–100) 98.1 ± 2.6 (95–100) 96.9 ± 3.7 (90–100)
Post-exercise 585 ± 94 (472–695) 572 ± 87 (461–694) 579 ± 68 (472–676) 577 ± 81 (496–746) 98.8 ± 2.3 (95–100) 95.6 ± 3.2 (90–100) 98.8 ± 2.3 (95–100) 98.1 ± 3.7 (90–100)
Complex Pre-exercise 772 ± 167 (599–1052) 757 ± 144 (587–1031) 722 ± 97 (589–895) 724 ± 103 (556–837) 97.8 ± 2.3 (94–100) 95.5 ± 3.7 (90–100) 96.3 ± 4.7 (88–100) 97.5 ± 2.8 (92–100)
Post-exercise 697 ± 131 (555–854) 688 ± 96 (578–857) 698 ± 96 (571–883) 708 ± 91 (628–876) 97.0 ± 2.4 (94–100) 96.8 ± 4.1 (88–100) 95.8 ± 4.5 (88–100) 96.5 ± 2.1 (92–98)
  Condition * time interaction, p = 0.080 Post-hoc: hot pre-exercise > post-exercise (p = 0.014)
Visual Search Baseline Pre-exercise 496 ± 16 (471–516) 505 ± 23 (482–549) 500 ± 15 (475–528) 508 ± 20 (483–545) 98.9 ± 3.2 (90.9–100) 99.4 ± 1.7 (95.2–100) 99.4 ± 1.7 (95.2–100) 99.4 ± 1.7 (95.2–100)
Post-exercise 481 ± 22 (464–535) 498 ± 39 (463–585) 515 ± 17 (493–540) 496 ± 9 (486–510) 99.4 ± 1.7 (95.2–100) 98.8 ± 2.2 (95.2–100) 100.0 ± 0.0 (100–100) 99.4 ± 1.7 (95.2–100)
Complex Pre-exercise 1932 ± 288 (1496–2354) 2060 ± 499 (1222–2810) 2010 ± 411 (1326–2733) 2174 ± 540 (1284–2787) 99.5 ± 1.3 (96.2–100) 98.2 ± 3.8 (89.3–100) 99.0 ± 2.0 (94.3–100) 98.8 ± 2.6 (92.6–100)
Post-exercise 1847 ± 295 (1228–2054) 1926 ± 304 (1360–2246) 2115 ± 321 (1655–2754) 2119 ± 356 (1294–2409) 99.3 ± 2.0 (94.3–100) 95.3 ± 6.5 (90.9–100) 99.3 ± 1.4 (96.2–100) 99.8 ± 0.7 (98–100)
  Condition * test level interaction, p = 0.005 Post-hoc: complex level hot < moderate (p = 0.001)
Sternberg 1 item Pre-exercise 401 ± 51 (343–492) 434 ± 59 (371–571) 402 ± 43 (347–475) 393 ± 44 (337–465) 98.4 ± 4.4 (87.5–100) 94.5 ± 6.2 (81.3–100) 92.9 ± 7.0 (81.3–100) 95.3 ± 8.7 (87.5–100)
Post-exercise 390 ± 36 (336–448) 372 ± 33 (332–433) 397 ± 33 (348–449) 394 ± 41 (333–447) 98.4 ± 2.9 (93.8–100) 94.5 ± 6.2 (81.3–100) 97.7 ± 4.7 (87.5–100) 97.7 ± 4.7 (87.5–100)
3 item Pre-exercise 468 ± 48 (398–520) 475 ± 52 (392–547) 494 ± 40 (431–558) 463 ± 68 (376–546) 96.9 ± 2.4 (93.8–100) 97.3 ± 3.5 (90.6–100) 94.9 ± 4.4 (87.5–100) 95.7 ± 3.7 (90.6–100)
Post-exercise 435 ± 53 (365–515) 451 ± 58 (397–563) 468 ± 43 (414–518) 467 ± 46 (397–530) 96.9 ± 3.7 (90.6–100) 97.7 ± 2.2 (93.8–100) 96.9 ± 1.7 (93.8–100) 96.9 ± 1.7 (93.8–100)
5 item Pre-exercise 564 ± 76 (480–678) 523 ± 64 (451–639) 555 ± 33 (510–605) 564 ± 85 (473–691) 96.5 ± 3.1 (90.6–100) 95.7 ± 6.7 (81.3–100) 95.7 ± 3.7 (90.6–100) 97.3 ± 2.0 (93.8–100)
Post-exercise 528 ± 76 (447–663) 555 ± 33 (510–605) 534 ± 52 (474–605) 549 ± 67 (441–648) 96.1 ± 2.8 (90.6–100) 93.4 ± 6.6 (78.1–100) 96.9 ± 4.4 (87.5–100) 97.3 ± 1.1 (96.9–100)
  Main effect of condition, p = 0.024 Post-hoc: hot < moderate (p = 0.024) Main effect of time, p = 0.007 Post-hoc: pre-exercise > post-exercise (p = 0.007) Condition * time interaction, p = 0.004 Post-hoc: moderate pre-exercise < post-exercise (p = 0.044)