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Table 3 Risk assessment for bias for the clinical studies

From: Swimming induced pulmonary oedema in athletes – a systematic review and best evidence synthesis

  Confounding Bias Selection Bias Classification Bias Intervention Bias Missing Data Bias Measurement Bias Reporting Bias Bias
Pons 1995 n py pn pn n py n moderate
Weiler 1995 py py n n n n n moderate
Roeggla 1996 n n n n n n n moderate
Lund 2003 pn py n n n py pn moderate
Adir 2004 y y n y n y pn critical
Biswas 2004 n n n n n n n moderate
Shuppak 2004 y y n n n py py serious
Wilmshurst 2004 n y n n y n n serious
Deady 2006 n n n n n n n moderate
Beinhart 2007 n n n n n n n moderate
Wenger 2007 n n n n n n n moderate
Noti 2009 n n n n n n n moderate
Carter 2011 n n n n n n n moderate
Ma 2013 n py py pn n y py critical
North 2013 n n n n py py n moderate
Casey 2014 n n n n n n n moderate
Peacher 2015 pn y py n py py pn critical
Yamamashi 2015 y y py py py py py critical
Beale 2016 n y pn py pn py pn serious
North 2013