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Table 4 Risk assessment for bias the basic science studies

From: Swimming induced pulmonary oedema in athletes – a systematic review and best evidence synthesis

  Confounding Bias Selection Bias Classification Bias Intervention Bias Missing Data Bias Measurement Bias Reporting Bias Bias
Pathophysiology         
1995 Caillard n n n n n n n moderate
2004 Choi py py pn pn py n py critical
2006 Ludwig py py n n n n n serious
2009 Wester n n n n n n n moderate
2010 Harris n py n n y n py serious
2010 Fraser n n n n n n n moderate
2011 Pingitore n n n n n n n moderate
2016 Moon y y n n n n n serious
DX         
2009 Shearer y py pn pn pn n n serious
RX         
2016.1 Moon n n n n n n n moderate