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Table 1 Description of the participant position and action required when testing muscular strength [40]

From: A protocol to prospectively assess risk factors for medial tibial stress syndrome in distance runners

Muscle Participant position Action
TA Sitting with knee flexed Dorsiflexion of the ankle joint and inversion of the foot without extension of the great toe.
P Side lying Eversion of the foot with plantar flexion of the ankle joint while applying pressure against the lateral border and sole of the foot, in the direction of inversion of the foot and dorsiflexion of the ankle joint.
SOL Prone with knee flexed to 90° Plantar flexion of the ankle joint, without inversion or eversion of the foot.
GM and GL Prone with knee extended Plantar flexion of the foot with emphasis on pulling the heel upward more than pushing the forefoot downward. For maximum pressure in this position it is necessary to apply pressure against the forefoot, as well as against the calcaneus.
FDL Supine Plantar flexion of the lesser digits without plantar flexion of the ankle joint.
FHL Supine Plantar flexion of the hallux without plantar flexion of the ankle joint or lesser digits.