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Table 2 Internal rotation exercises. Mean ± standard deviation of the internal/external rotation and adduction/abduction moments Mmax [Nm/kg], RoMs [°], and angles at maximal moment α(Mmax) [°] in the GHJC are presented. Significant exercise differences (p < 0.05) are indicated in superscript form. *: represents values that are significantly different (p < 0.05) from those obtained with the other resistance type for the same exercise

From: Comparison of the kinematics and kinetics of shoulder exercises performed with constant and elastic resistance

    Elb_int Elb20_int Sho_int Sho20_int Sho20_com
Internal/ external rotation in the GHJC Mmax [Nm/kg] CR −0.073 ± 0.006* Sho_int −0.066 ± 0.007* Sho_int − 0.086 ± 0.010* Elb_int −0.082 ± 0.006* Elb_int −0.032 ± 0.012* Elb_int
Sho20_int Sho20_int Elb20_int Elb20_int Elb20_int
Sho20_com Sho20_com Sho20_com Sho20_com Sho_int
Sho20_int
ER −0.041 ± 0.004* Sho20_com −0.039 ± 0.004* Sho20_int −0.047 ± 0.005* Sho20_com −0.041 ± 0.005* Elb20_int −0.014 ± 0.006* Elb_int
Sho20_com Sho20_com Elb20_int
Sho_int
Sho20_int
RoM [°] CR 92.6 ± 20.5 Sho20_com 90.4 ± 22.9 Sho20_com 79.2 ± 10.6 Sho20_com 79.7 ± 9.3 Sho20_com 110.0 ± 18.5 Elb_int
Elb20_int
Sho_int
Sho20_int
ER 96.1 ± 21.8 Sho20_com 91.1 ± 26.8 Sho20_com 81.1 ± 11.2 Sho20_com 81.5 ± 11.2 Sho20_com 112.3 ± 16.1 Elb_int
Elb20_int
Sho_int
Sho20_int
α(Mmax) [°] CR −11.6 ± 7.0* Sho_int −11.1 ± 7.1* Sho_int −68.3 ± 8.2 Elb_int −65.2 ± 6.5 Elb_int −9.3 ± 11.7* Sho_int
Sho20_int Sho20_int Elb20_int Elb20_int Sho20_int
Sho20_com Sho20_com
ER 7.9 ± 5.8* Sho_int 6.3 ± 5.7* Sho_int −69.0 ± 7.3 Elb_int −67.6 ± 8.4 Elb_int 26.5 ± 10.2* Elb_int
Sho20_int Sho20_int Elb20_int Elb20_int Elb20_int
Sho20_com Sho20_com Sho20_com Sho20_com Sho_int
Sho20_int
Adduction/ abduction in the GHJC Mmax [Nm/kg] CR −0.067 ± 0.019 Sho_int −0.083 ± 0.022 Sho_int 0.071 ± 0.014 Elb_int 0.067 ± 0.010 Elb_int −0.082 ± 0.013 Sho_int
Sho20_int Sho20_int Elb20_int Elb20_int Sho20_int
Sho20_com Sho20_com
ER −0.073 ± 0.019 Sho_int −0.086 ± 0.022 Sho_int 0.072 ± 0.014 Elb_int 0.067 ± 0.011 Elb_int −0.084 ± 0.013 Sho_int
Sho20_int Sho20_int Elb20_int Elb20_int Sho20_int
Sho20_com Sho20_com
RoM [°] CR 11.5 ± 6.5 Sho20_com 11.1 ± 6.1 Sho20_com 10.2 ± 4.1 Sho20_com 9.1 ± 4.4 Sho20_com 87.9 ± 16.1 Elb_int
Elb20_int
Sho_int
Sho20_int
ER 14.4 ± 7.8 Sho20_com 12.3 ± 6.9 Sho20_com 10.2 ± 6.1 Sho20_com 9.6 ± 3.4 Sho20_com 87.0 ± 16.2 Elb_int
Elb20_int
Sho_int
Sho20_int
α(Mmax) [°] CR −3.6 ± 8.4 Sho_int −3.9 ± 7.4 Sho_int − 61.4 ± 10.0 Elb_int −63.0 ± 9.2 Elb_int 10.9 ± 7.7 Elb_int
Sho20_int Sho20_int Elb20_int Elb20_int Elb20_int
Sho20_com Sho20_com Sho20_com Sho20_com Sho_int
Sho20_int
ER −0.4 ± 7.4 Sho_int −1.8 ± 7.5 Sho_int −61.5 ± 10.3 Elb_int −62.1 ± 12.2 Elb_int 10.8 ± 7.6 Elb_int
Sho20_int Sho20_int Elb20_int Elb20_int Elb20_int
Sho20_com Sho20_com Sho20_com Sho20_com Sho_int
Sho20_int