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Table 3 External rotation exercises. Mean ± standard deviation of the internal/external rotation and adduction/abduction moments Mmax [Nm/kg], RoMs [°], and angles at maximal moment α(Mmax) [°] in the GHJC are presented. Significant exercise differences (p < 0.05) are indicated in superscript form. *: represents values that are significantly different (p < 0.05) from those obtained with the other resistance type for the same exercise

From: Comparison of the kinematics and kinetics of shoulder exercises performed with constant and elastic resistance

    Elb_ext Elb20_ext Sho_ext Sho20_ext Elb20_com
Internal/ external rotation in the GHJC Mmax [Nm/kg] CR 0.085 ± 0.005* Sho20_ext 0.088 ± 0.006* Sho20_ext 0.088 ± 0.006* Sho20_ext 0.103 ± 0.004* Elb_ext 0.070 ± 0.020* Elb_ext
Elb20_com Elb20_com Elb20_com Elb20_ext Elb20_ext
Sho_ext Sho_ext
Elb20_com Sho20_ext
ER 0.057 ± 0.005* Sho_ext 0.060 ± 0.006* Sho20_ext 0.069 ± 0.006* Elb_ext 0.075 ± 0.007* Elb_ext 0.046 ± 0.013* Elb_ext
Sho20_ext Elb20_com Elb20_com Elb20_ext Elb20_ext
Elb20_com Elb20_com Sho_ext
Sho20_ext
RoM [°] CR 89.8 ± 22.7 Sho_ext 85.5 ± 20.7 Sho_ext 69.1 ± 9.3 Elb_ext 76.5 ± 9.2 Elb_ext 113.6 ± 17.5 Elb_ext
Sho20_ext Sho20_ext Elb20_ext Elb20_ext Elb20_ext
Elb20_com Elb20_com Elb20_com Elb20_com Sho_ext
Sho20_ext
ER 96.1 ± 19.8 Sho_ext 92.9 ± 21.8 Sho_ext 68.9 ± 10.8 Elb_ext 75.8 ± 11.1 Elb_ext 112.5 ± 15.4 Elb_ext
Sho20_ext Sho20_ext Elb20_ext Elb20_ext Elb20_ext
Elb20_com Elb20_com Elb20_com Elb20_com Sho_ext
Sho20_ext
α(Mmax) [°] CR 0.2 ± 7.7* Sho_ext −1.4 ± 5.7* Sho_ext −34.9 ± 5.9* Elb_ext −22.1 ± 5.9* Elb_ext 16.0 ± 8.4* Elb_ext
Sho20_ext Sho20_ext Elb20_ext Elb20_ext Elb20_ext
Elb20_com Elb20_com Sho20_ext Sho_ext Sho_ext
Elb20_com Elb20_com Sho20_ext
ER −13.1 ± 5.9* Sho_ext −13.5 ± 7.3* Sho_ext −43.0 ± 6.8* Elb_ext −30.7 ± 8.6* Elb_ext −6.8 ± 7.3* Sho_ext
Sho20_ext Sho20_ext Elb20_ext Elb20_ext Sho20_ext
Sho20_ext Sho_ext  
Elb20_com Elb20_com  
Adduction/ abduction in the GHJC Mmax [Nm/kg] CR 0.077 ± 0.012 Sho_ext 0.090 ± 0.018 Sho20_ext 0.106 ± 0.014 Elb_ext 0.123 ± 0.017 Elb_ext 0.136 ± 0.033 Elb-ext
Sho20_ext Elb20_com Elb20_com Elb20_ext Elb20_ext
Elb20_com Sho_ext
ER 0.084 ± 0.017 Sho20_ext 0.096 ± 0.011 Sho20_ext 0.103 ± 0.013 Elb20_com 0.124 ± 0.013 Elb_ext 0.141 ± 0.029 Elb_ext
Elb20_com Elb20_com Elb20_ext Elb20_ext
Sho_ext
RoM [°] CR 10.3 ± 5.9 Elb20_com 8.6 ± 4.1 Elb20_com 14.2 ± 3.1 Elb20_com 12.5 ± 4.2 Elb20_com 95.7 ± 19.1 Elb_ext
Elb20_ext
Sho_ext
Sho20_ext
ER 11.0 ± 5.0 Elb20_com 10.3 ± 4.5 Elb20_com 13.6 ± 3.9 Elb20_com 13.2 ± 5.5 Elb20_com 90.4 ± 16.7 Elb_ext
Elb20_ext
Sho_ext
Sho20_ext
α(Mmax) [°] CR −13.7 ± 4.3 Sho_ext −14.0 ± 4.0 Sho_ext −55.2 ± 7.8 Elb_ext −57.9 ± 7.8 Elb_ext −70.9 ± 16.8 Elb_ext
Sho20_ext Sho20_ext Elb20_ext Elb20_ext Elb20_ext
Elb20_com Elb20_com Elb20_com Elb20_com Sho_ext
Sho20_ext
ER −11.7 ± 5.4 Sho_ext −12.7 ± 4.6 Sho_ext −53.5 ± 8.1 Elb_ext −53.6 ± 10.2 Elb_ext −71.0 ± 13.2 Elb_ext
Sho20_ext Sho20_ext Elb20_ext Elb20_ext Elb20_ext
Elb20_com Elb20_com Elb20_com Elb20_com Sho_ext
Sho20_ext