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Table 2 Cardiopulmonary exercise and derived variables of population A (maximal exercise)

From: New method for the mathematical derivation of the ventilatory anaerobic threshold: a retrospective study

  Healthy subjects Patients with CV risk factors Cardiac subjects
Peak work rate, W 170 ± 65* 121 ± 36 71 ± 28
Ramp duration, s 550 ± 139 572 ± 132 494 ± 148
Peak Borg scale 16.7 ± 1.3* 16.8 ± 1.4 15.4 ± 1.6
Peak HR, beats/min 164 ± 23* 134 ± 27 117 ± 19
%Predicted peak HR 90 ± 9.5* 83 ± 13 77 ± 12
VO2peak, mL/min 2031 ± 728* 1581 ± 413 973 ± 323
VO2peak, mL/kg/min 32.2 ± 9.2* 22.0 ± 6.0 16.0 ± 4.0
Peak R 1.18 ± 0.09 1.15 ± 0.09 1.14 ± 0.10
vVAT, mL/min 1042 ± 310* 916 ± 237 629 ± 169
vVAT, mL/min/kg 16.7 ± 4.1* 12.6 ± 3.2 10.4 ± 1.9
expVAT (VCO2), mL/min 1085 ± 353* 874 ± 199 589 ± 168
expVAT (VCO2), mL/min/kg 17.2 ± 4.2* 12.1 ± 2.7 9.7 ± 2.0
 Exponential coefficient 1.0012 ± 0.0003* 1.0013 ± 0.0002 1.0020 ± 0.0006
expVAT (VE), mL/min 1053 ± 295* 884 ± 203 634 ± 176
expVAT (VE), mL/min/kg 16.7 ± 3.4* 12.2 ± 2.8 10.4 ± 2.3
 Exponential coefficient 1.0010 ± 0.0003* 1.0011 ± 0.0002 1.0017 ± 0.0006
OUES (VCO2), mL/min 2036 ± 599* 1725 ± 345 1197 ± 326
OUES (VE), mL/min 2386 ± 679* 1988 ± 451 1413 ± 404
  1. *p-Value was significant at least at < 0.05 by 1-way analysis of variance.
  2. HR heart rate, VO2 oxygen uptake, R respiratory exchange rate, vVAT visual ventilatory anaerobic threshold: expVAT (VCO2), exponential VAT based on VO2 vs. VCO2; expVAT (VE), exponential VAT based on VO2 vs. VE; OUES (VCO2), oxygen uptake efficiency slope based on logVCO2 vs. VO2; OUES (VE), oxygen uptake efficiency slope based on logVE vs. VO2