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Table 3 Physical and biochemical characteristics at PRE, 20 h and 70 h post intervention

From: The effects of two weeks high-intensity interval training on fasting glucose, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in adolescent boys: a pilot study

  PRE 20 h post intervention 70 h post intervention P-value Effect size
Fasting      Partial Eta Squared
Glucose (mmo∙L−1) 5.05 ± 0.3 5.00 ± 0.3 5.09 ± 0.2 0.86 0.028
Insulin (μU∙ml.) 19.41 ± 8.4 18.63 ± 3.5 20.60 ± 8.2 0.84 0.025
HOMA-IR (arbitrary units) 2.47 ± 1.04 2.37 ± 0.45 2.61 ± 0.99 0.85 0.027
HOMA-S% (arbitrary units) 45.86 ± 15.44 43.51 ± 8.62 42.27 ± 13.11 0.87 0.024
HOMA- B% (arbitrary units) 170.93 ± 39.86 172.70 ± 18.10 177.26 ± 46.70 0.93 0.013
QUICKI (arbitrary units) 0.311 ± 0.017 0.311 ± 0.010 0.308 ± 0.015 0.89 0.020
FGIR (mg/10− 4 U) 5.27 ± 1.64 4.96 ± 0.82 4.92 ± 1.43 0.86 0.025
MMTT
 iAUC Glucose (mmol∙min∙L− 1) 91.08 ± 80.26 107.79 ± 77.26 81.06 ± 43.99 0.57 0.089
 tAUC Glucose (mmol∙min∙L− 1) 696.76 ± 74.11 707.67 ± 48.73 690.47 ± 36.96 0.56 0.093
 iAUC Insulin (μU∙ml∙min− 1) 4499.57 ± 1834.26 4538.14 ± 1882.24 4908.71 ± 1329.51 0.78 0.041
 tAUC Insulin (μU∙ml∙min− 1) 6807.00 ± 1415.10 6774.29 ± 1661.46 7380.29 ± 1906.95 0.60 0.082
Fitness      Cohen’s D
\( \dot{V} \)O2 max (L∙min−1) 2.44 ± 0.70 2.52 ± 0.76 0.27 0.10
HR max (b min− 1) 192 ± 8 193 ± 9 0.65 0.16
GET (L∙min− 1) 1.33 ± 0.29 1.35 ± 0.28 0.85 0.04
GET (% \( \dot{V} \)O2 max) 55.7 ± 7.1 54.9 ± 7.5 0.60 0.09
PP (W) 233 ± 58 244 ± 66 0.09 0.14
  1. Results shown as mean ± SD
  2. HOMA-IR homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-S% homeostatic assessment of insulin sensitivity, HOMA- B% %, homeostatic assessment of beta-cell function, QUICKI quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, FGIR fasting glucose;insulin ratio, iAUC incremental area under curve, tAUC total area under curve, HR heart rate, GET gas exchange threshold, PP peak power. P-values from ANOVA for fasting and MMTT outcomes, and paired sample T-test for fitness outcomes. Effect size from Partial Eta Squared for Fasting and MMTT outcomes, and Cohen’s D for fitness outcomes