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Table 2 Descriptive statistics of latent variables

From: Attitudes and behavior related to performance-enhancing substance use among elite Saudi football players

ConstructItem(s)Response scale (range)
Doping susceptibilityWhich of the following most applies to you?
(1) Never considered using a banned PES
(2) At one stage thought briefly about using a banned PES
(3) At one stage thought quite a bit about using a banned PES
(4) Still think occasionally about using a banned PES because other athletes are using them
(5) Briefly used a banned PES in the past but no longer do so
(6) Occasionally use a banned PES now for specific purposes
(7) Regularly try or use banned PES
1 = never to 7 = regular
Doping susceptibility = 17.1%
74 participants answered yes to items 4 to 7
Legitimacy perceptionsHow fair is the Saudi Anti-Doping Committee in terms of treating all athletes equally?1 = Very fair to 5 = I do not know
(287 participants answered fair = 70%)
How secure is the Saudi Anti-Doping Committee’s drug-testing procedures? That is, in taking samples and the care of samples?1 = Very secured to 5 = I do not know
(296 participants answered secure = 72.5%)
How satisfied are you that athletes in your sport who test positive will be given a fair hearing before a decision is made about applying a penalty?1 = Very satisfied to 5 = I do not know
(275 of the participants are satisfied = 67.5%)
To what extent do you think that athletes who have been given Therapeutic Use Exemptions have been thoroughly evaluated and that their exemptions are justified?1 = not justified to 5 = I do not know
(100 participants answered not justified = 24.5%)
Morality and cheating measuresWhich of the following statements best describes your own personal feelings about deliberately using banned PES?
1- I believe deliberately using banned PES to improve performance is morally wrong under any circumstances
2- I believe deliberately using banned PES to improve performance is morally OK under some circumstances, but wrong under others
3- I believe deliberately using banned PES to improve performance is morally OK under any circumstances
1 = 318 (77.9%)
2 = 75 (18.4%)
3 = 15 (3.6%)
4- If you were caught, using banned performance-enhancing substances or methods, to what extent would you experience the following feelings? Shame/Embarrassment/Guilt.1 = Not at all to 5 = great extent
304 (74.5%) would feel ashamed, 328 (80%) would feel embarrassed, 333 (81%) would feel guilty to a great extent.
Beliefs about the benefits of dopingHow much would you personally like these outcomes for performing well in your sport?
1- National celebrity status
2- Lucrative financial sponsorship deals
3- Personal best achievements
4- Opportunities for remaining in the sport as coach, trainer, or administrator
5- Future financial security
6- International celebrity status
For each statement:
1 = a lot to 3 = not at all
1 = 342 (82%) like it a lot
2 = 308 (76%) like it a lot
3 = 343 (84%) like it a lot
4 = 24 9 (61%) like it a lot
5 = 338 (83.9%) like it a lot
6 = 316 (77.5%) like it a lot
Threat or deterrence appraisalHow likely it is that athletes at your level would be drug tested at least once a year?1 = very likely to 5 = I do not know
265 (65%) answered likely
If you were to take banned performance-enhancing substances how likely do you think that you could get away with it if you really tried to?1 = very likely to 5 = I do not know
180 (44%) answered likely
Are the penalties for a positive drug test in your sport severe or lenient?1 = very severe to 5 = I do not know
313 (76.7%) answered severe
Beliefs about the reference group’s endorsement of dopingIf you were given the opportunity to use a banned performance-enhancing substance, to what extent do you think each of the following people would approve or disapprove? Coach/parents/team mate//team doctor.1 = Would definitely approve to 5 = Definitely disapprove
335 (82%) of participants think that the coach will disapprove
349 (85%) of parents would disapprove
269 (66%) of team mates would disapprove
346 (84%) of team doctors would disapprove
Authorities’ control of dopingHow serious do you feel the following authorities are in preventing trafficking of banned performance-enhancing substances (police and customs)1 = not at all to 5 = very serious
303 (74%) feel that police are serious
312 (76%) feel that customs are serious
Beliefs about other athletes’ attitudes toward dopingOut of 100%, how many athletes in football do you believe engage in doping to enhance their performance?1 = 0–25% 2 = 26–50%, 3 = > 50%
1 = 211 (52%), 2 = 140 (34%), 3 = 57 (14%)