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Table 3 Comparison of the muscular activity of all six muscles during the In/Ex shoulder rotation in the four conditions (pipes). Displayed are the p-values with a statistical difference of p < 0.008

From: Neuromuscular shoulder activity during exercises with different combinations of stable and unstable weight mass

MuscleP vs PGP vs PWP vs PWGPG vs PWPG vs PWGPW vs PWGr
DE0.001*0.052< 0.001*0.001*0.126< 0.001*0.931
L.TA< 0.001*0.006*< 0.001*0.001*0.005*< 0.001*0.956
SA< 0.001*0.006*< 0.001*< 0.001*< 0.001*< 0.001*0.946
  1. P: empty pipe (0.5 kg); PG: weight (stable mass; 4.5 kg); PW: water (unstable mass; 1 kg); PWG: water + weight (unstable mass; 4.5 kg); U/L. TA: upper/lower trapezius; DE deltoid, LD latissimus dorsi, SA serratus anterior, PE pectoralis major; r: mean correlation coefficient; *: significant differences α level Bonferroni adjusted