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Table 4 Comparison of the muscular activity of all six muscles during the shoulder Ab/Ad in the four conditions (pipes). Displayed are the p-values with a statistical difference of p < 0.008

From: Neuromuscular shoulder activity during exercises with different combinations of stable and unstable weight mass

MuscleP vs PGP vs PWP vs PWGPG vs PWPG vs PWGPW vs PWGr
U.TA< 0.001*0.0430.001*0.002*0.6070.0170.921
DE< 0.001*0.0460.001*< 0.001*0.3370.004*0.885
L.TA0.001*0.042< 0.001*0.002*0.7000.001*0.937
LD< 0.001*0.019< 0.001*0.001*0.072< 0.001*0.873
SA< 0.001*0.001*< 0.001*< 0.001*0.934< 0.001*0.903
PE0.3030.5380.3200.0110.7860.006*0.802
  1. P: empty pipe (0.5 kg); PG: weight (stable mass; 4.5 kg); PW: water (unstable mass; 1 kg); PWG: water + weight (unstable mass; 4.5 kg); U/L. TA: upper/lower trapezius; DE deltoid, LD latissimus dorsi, SA serratus anterior, PE pectoralis major; r: mean correlation coefficient; *: significant differences α level Bonferroni adjusted