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Table 3 Maximal values during incremental test under normoxia and hypoxia

From: Effect of inspiratory muscle-loaded exercise training on peak oxygen uptake and ventilatory response during incremental exercise under normoxia and hypoxia

 Normoxic conditionHypoxic conditionANOVA
IMLET (n = 8)ET (n = 8)IMLET (n = 8)ET (n = 8) 
prePostprepostprepostprepostconditionperiodgroupInteraction
VO2peak [L min− 1]3159 ± 4643487 ± 6352897 ± 4983171 ± 4892631 ± 4332980 ± 5692546 ± 4242717 ± 489P = 0.00,
ηp2 = 0.90
P = 0.00,
ηp2 = 0.55
P = 0.34,
ηp2 = 0.07
P = 0.35,
ηp2 = 0.06
VCO2peak [L min− 1]3422 ± 5243752 ± 5843298 ± 5283360 ± 5112924 ± 3833356 ± 6162914 ± 479#3045 ± 511P = 0.00,
ηp2 = 0.82
P = 0.00,
ηp2 = 0.62
P = 0.42,
ηp2 = 0.05
P = 0.82,
ηp2 = 0.00
Wmax [kp]4.03 ± 0.514.28 ± 0.493.72 ± 0.533.97 ± 0.543.44 ± 0.443.75 ± 0.443.28 ± 0.533.47 ± 0.54P = 0.00,
ηp2 = 0.80
P = 0.00, ηp2 = 0.75P = 0.32,
ηp2 = 0.07
P = 0.23,
ηp2 = 0.10
VEmax [L min− 1]109.6 ± 20.6127.6 ± 23.1106.2 ± 16.7109.9 ± 19.7104.8 ± 22.0121.8 ± 25.0103.6 ± 16.4107.5 ± 19.7P = 0.08,
ηp2 = 0.19
P = 0.00, ηp2 = 0.70P = 0.00,
ηp2 = 0.97
P = 0.05,
ηp2 = 0.83
fR [breath min− 1]50.9 ± 9.753.7 ± 11.749.2 ± 8.548.3 ± 9.348.9 ± 12.150.3 ± 11.850.4 ± 8.647.6 ± 9.3P = 0.27,
ηp2 = 0.08
P = 0.91, ηp2 = 0.00P = 0.66,
ηp2 = 0.01
P = 0.89,
ηp2 = 0.01
VT [L]2.47 ± 0.332.81 ± 0.452.30 ± 0.382.42 ± 0.412.46 ± 0.242.85 ± 0.442.27 ± 0.432.66 ± 0.41P = 0.50,
ηp2 = 0.03
P = 0.01, ηp2 = 0.63P = 0.51, ηp2 = 0.03P = 0.58,
ηp2 = 0.02
VE VO2− 134.58 ± 2.636.63 ± 2.8637.08 ± 5.3334.69 ± 5.0439.61 ± 3.0640.83 ± 3.8040.89 ± 3.5839.80 ± 5.04P = 0.01,
ηp2 = 0.80
P = 0.01, ηp2 = 0.93P = 0.89, ηp2 = 0.01P = 0.42,
ηp2 = 0.05
VE VCO2− 131.9 ± 2.933.9 ± 2.232.4 ± 3.332.8 ± 3.435.6 ± 3.736.2 ± 2.735.7 ± 2.935.3 ± 3.4P = 0.00,
ηp2 = 0.72
P = 0.15, ηp2 = 0.14P = 0.79, ηp2 = 0.01P = 0.72,
ηp2 = 0.01
PETCO2 [mmHg]40.9 ± 2.237.2 ± 2.340.0 ± 3.738.7 ± 3.136.6 ± 3.034.0 ± 2.136.4 ± 2.835.9 ± 2.9P = 0.00,
ηp2 = 0.81
P = 0.03, ηp2 = 0.48P = 0.77, ηp2 = 0.01P = 0.68,
ηp2 = 0.01
WOB [J min− 1]276 ± 87318 ± 98258 ± 66288 ± 97235 ± 59276 ± 85231 ± 64299 ± 97P = 0.80,
ηp2 = 0.01
P = 0.04, ηp2 = 0.28P = 0.32, ηp2 = 0.08P = 0.53,
ηp2 = 0.03
PEpeak [cmH2O]24.5 ± 11.223.2 ± 7.026.8 ± 9.626.4 ± 11.222.1 ± 6.3#22.3 ± 12.621.6 ± 5.321.5 ± 11.2P = 0.01,
ηp2 = 0.43
P = 0.61, ηp2 = 0.02P = 0.93,
ηp2 = 0.01
P = 0.81,
ηp2 = 0.01
PIpeak [cmH2O]−27.9 ± 22.8−37.9 ± 9.7−35.6 ± 5.3−38.2 ± 10.0−33.8 ± 4.6−32.7 ± 8.7−34.0 ± 7.3−39.1 ± 8.3P = 0.78,
ηp2 = 0.01
P = 0.06, ηp2 = 0.25P = 0.48,
ηp2 = 0.04
P = 0.11,
ηp2 = 0.19
PEFR [L sec− 1]6.39 ± 1.567.54 ± 1.466.66 ± 1.656.63 ± 1.395.81 ± 1.297.00 ± 1.535.35 ± 0.516.54 ± 1.39P = 0.02,
ηp2 = 0.34
P = 0.02, ηp2 = 0.36P = 0.49,
ηp2 = 0.04
P = 0.13,
ηp2 = 0.17
HRmax [beat min− 1]185.5 ± 7187.7 ± 7.5184.3 ± 10.4184.5 ± 14.4175.1 ± 9.4178.0 ± 8.0180.4 ± 11.7181.0 ± 14.4P = 0.00,
ηp2 = 0.61
P = 0.32, ηp2 = 0.61P = 0.65,
ηp2 = 0.02
P = 0.66,
ηp2 = 0.02
SaO2 [%]96 ± 396 ± 296 ± 297 ± 282 ± 3#82 ± 4#83 ± 2#84 ± 2#P = 0.00,
ηp2 = 0.97
P = 0.43, ηp2 = 0.04P = 0.53,
ηp2 = 0.03
P = 0.01,
ηp2 = 0.91
  1. Values are mean ± SD. #, significantly different from normoxic exercise; VO2peak Maximal oxygen consumption; VCO2peak Maximal carbon dioxide elimination; Wmax Maximal work load; VEmax Maximal minute ventilation; fR Respiratory frequency; VT Tidal volume; PETCO2 End-tidal partial pressure of CO2; WOB Work of breathing; PEpeak peak expiratory pressure; PIpeak Peak inspiratory pressure; PEFR Peak expiratory flow rate; HRmax Maximal heart rate; SaO2 arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation