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Table 3 Comparison of sprint, change of direction and jump performance between groups before and after the 7-week trial

From: The effect of a sand surface on physical performance responses of junior male handball players to plyometric training

VariablesGroupPre-trialPost-trialp valued (Cohen)
Sprint
 5 m (s)PS1.21 ± 0.110.99 ± 0.12 ¥¥¥ ££< 0.001 a1.21
P1.22 ± 0.061.14 ± 0.08< 0.001 b1.38
C1.22 ± 0.051.21 ± 0.04< 0.001 c1.12
 10 m (s)PS2.17 ± 0.141.68 ± 0.23 ¥¥¥ ££< 0.001 a1.40
P2.14 ± 0.122.01 ± 0.11< 0.001 b1.55
C2.16 ± 0.092.14 ± 0.10< 0.001 c1.50
 20 m (s)PS3.57 ± 0.253.14 ± 0.11 ¥¥ £0.005 a0.90
P3.58 ± 0.223.40 ± 0.12< 0.001 b1.17
C3.55 ± 0.203.54 ± 0.180.002 c0.98
change-of-direction
 T-Half (s)PS7.00 ± 0.306.37 ± 0.25 ¥¥¥ £< 0.001 a1.24
P7.17 ± 0.396.74 ± 0.28< 0.001 b1.17
C7.13 ± 0.367.14 ± 0.300.007 c0.88
 Illinois-MT (s)PS13.0 ± 0.311.9 ± 0.4¥¥¥ £< 0.001 a1.35
P13.0 ± 0.412.4 ± 0.5 €< 0.001 b1.55
C13.1 ± 0.213.0 ± 0.2< 0.001 c1.19
Jump tests
 SJ (cm)PS28.6 ± 4.036.6 ± 3.3 ¥¥¥< 0.001 a1.13
P27.2 ± 3.835.6 ± 2.5 €€< 0.001 b1.98
C27.3 ± 3.029.5 ± 2.70.005 c0.90
 CMJ (cm)PS29.2 ± 3.540.3 ± 5.3 ¥¥0.002 a0.98
P30.7 ± 3.439.0 ± 3.1 €€< 0.001 b1.93
C30.4 ± 3.431.8 ± 3.1< 0.001 c1.14
 5JT (cm)PS10.4 ± 0.611.1 ± 0.50.198 a0.48
P9.8 ± 1.211.1 ± 1.50.012 b0.69
C10.1 ± 1.110.2 ± 1.20.238 c0.45
  1. PS = plyometrics on sand; P = standard plyometrics; C = control group; n = number; s = seconde; SJ = squat jump; CMJ = counter-movement jump; 5JT = five-jump test; T- Half = T-Half test; Illinois-MT = Modified lllinois test; ¥ = denotes a significant difference between PS and C; £ = denotes a significant difference between PS and P; € = denotes a significant difference between P and C; a = denotes a main effect of group, b = denotes a main effect of time; c = denote a group x time interaction; ¥: p ≤ 0.05; ¥¥:p ≤ 0.01; ¥¥¥: p ≤ 0.001; £: p ≤ 0.05; ££: p ≤ 0.01; £££: p ≤ 0.001; €: p ≤ 0.05; €€€: p ≤ 0.001