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Table 4 Comparison of repeated sprint T-test and balance performance between groups before and after the 7-week trial

From: The effect of a sand surface on physical performance responses of junior male handball players to plyometric training

VariablesGroupPre-trialPost-trialp valued (Cohen)
Repeated sprint T-test
 Repeated sprint T-test–Best time (s)PS12.2 ± 0.610.2 ± 0.6 ¥¥¥ £< 0.001 a1.47
P12.2 ± 0.311.2 ± 0.5 €< 0.001 b1.99
C12.2 ± 0.612.1 ± 0.5< 0.001 c1.43
 Repeated sprint T-test-Mean time (s)PS12.5 ± 0.510.5 ± 1.0 ¥¥0.003 a0.97
P12.4 ± 0.311.0 ± 1.1 €< 0.001 b1.58
C12.4 ± 0.712.3 ± 0.6≤0.001 c1.04
 Repeated sprint T-test–Fatigue indexPS−4.4 ± 2.1−2.4 ± 0.6 ¥¥¥< 0.001 a1.40
P−4.0 ± 2.1−3.7 ± 2.3 €€€0.006 b0.76
C−8.5 ± 3.5−5.6 ± 3.00.199 c0.48
 Repeated sprint T-test–Total time (s)PS87.5 ± 3.973.7 ± 7.1 ¥¥0.003 a0.97
P86.9 ± 2.377.0 ± 8.1 €< 0.001 b1.58
C87.0 ± 4.886.5 ± 4.3≤0.001 c1.04
Y Balance Test
 Right support leg
  RL/L (cm)PS83.6 ± 6.698.1 ± 12.7 ¥0.023 a0.75
P83.6 ± 7.894.0 ± 9.30.000 b1.13
C82.2 ± 6.284.9 ± 6.10.087 c0.60
  RL/B (cm)PS106.3 ± 6.4122.5 ± 7.0 ¥¥¥< 0.001 a1.55
P104.6 ± 5.0122.5 ± 8.9 €€€< 0.001 b1.98
C102.0 ± 6.1105.2 ± 5.5≤0.001 c1.03
  RL/R (cm)PS51.4 ± 9.955.7 ± 9.30.894 a0.12
P52.3 ± 10.855.5 ± 11.00.335 b0.26
C52.1 ± 12.152.6 ± 12.10.843 c0.15
Left support leg
  LL/L (cm)PS48.9 ± 8.753.3 ± 7.50.702 a0.22
P51.0 ± 12.254.9 ± 9.60.112 b0.43
C51.7 ± 9.455.1 ± 9.10.987 c0.000
  LL/B (cm)PS110.7 ± 5.8122.1 ± 8.7 ¥¥¥< 0.001 a1.12
P103.3 ± 3.5118.5 ± 8.1< 0.001 b1.29
C104.7 ± 9.9107.5 ± 9.70.048 c0.67
  LL/R (cm)PS86.5 ± 6.790.7 ± 6.50.169 a0.51
P84.3 ± 6.890.7 ± 5.50.013 b0.68
C82.2 ± 9.586.3 ± 9.60.865 c0.14
Stork Balance Test
 Right leg (s)PS3.25 ± 1.3615.12 ± 2.07 ¥¥¥ ££< 0.001 a1.49
P5.11 ± 5.446.76 ± 5.56€< 0.001 b1.13
C3.18 ± 1.313.54 ± 1.62< 0.001 c1.61
 Left leg (s)PS4.41 ± 3.0715.18 ± 3.07 ¥¥¥ £££< 0.001 a2.26
P4.43 ± 3.385.42 ± 4.54 €€< 0.001 b1.44
C2.07 ± 0.532.41 ± 0.72< 0.001 c1.73
  1. PS = plyometrics on sand; P = standard plyometrics; C = control group; RL = right leg; LL = left leg; L = left; R = right; B = back; n = number; s = seconde; ¥ = denotes a significant difference between PS and C; £ = denotes a significant difference between PS and P; € = denotes a significant difference between P and C; a = denotes a main effect of group, b = denotes a main effect of time; c = denote a group x time interaction; ¥: p ≤ 0.05; ¥¥:p ≤ 0.01; ¥¥¥: p ≤ 0.001; £: p ≤ 0.05; ££: p ≤ 0.01; £££: p ≤ 0.001; €: p ≤ 0.05; €€€: p ≤ 0.001