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Table 3 Intention to treat analysis of outcomes, estimated means and 95% confidence intervals at baseline, 8 weeks and 16 weeks

From: Periodized resistance training for persistent non-specific low back pain: a mixed methods feasibility study

OutcomeBaseline8 weeks16 weeksEffect size (Baseline to 16 weeks)
OutcomesMean (95% CI)Mean (95% CI)Mean (95% CI)Cohens d
LBP (NPRS; 0–10)
 Current3.1 (2.5–3.7)1.8 (1.2–2.4)*1.7 (1.1–2.4)*1.0 (0.5–1.4)
 Worst last 2 weeks6.5 (5.8–7.1)3.8 (3.1–4.5)**3.0 (2.3–3.7)**2.1 (1.6–2.7)
 Worst last 4 weeks6.7 (6.1–7.4)4.2 (3.5–4.9)**3.5 (2.8–4.2)**2.1 (1.5–2.6)
 ODI (0–50)9.2 (7.9–10.5)7.0 (5.7–8.3)*5.3 (3.9–6.7)*1.2 (0.8–1.7)
 PSEQ (0–60)48.8 (46.2–51.4)54.3 (51.7–57.3)*56.5 (53.8–59.2)*1.2 (0.9–1.6)
 Squat (kg)67.8 (58.8–76.8)84.9 (75.9–93.9)**103.2 (94.2–112.3)**1.7 (1.6–1.9)
 Bench – press (kg)56.9 (47.6–66.2)64.4 (55.1–73.7)**74 (64.7–83.4)**0.8 (0.7–0.9)
 Deadlift (kg)77.6 (68.5–86.7)93.6 (84.4–102.7)**105.3 (96.7–114.6)**1.3 (1.1–1.6)
 Pendlay row (kg)49.9 (43.2–56.7)55.8 (49.1–62.6)**62.7 (55.9–69.4)**0.8 (0.7–0.9)
  1. Abbreviations: NPRS Numerical Pain Rating Scale, ODI Oswestry Low Back Disability Questionnaire, PSEQ Pain Self- Efficacy Questionnaire, LBP Low Back Pain, CI Confidence Interval. Change from baseline* p ≤ 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.01