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Table 4 Per protocol analysis (participation > 70) of outcomes, estimated means and 95% confidence intervals from baseline to 8 and 16 weeks

From: Periodized resistance training for persistent non-specific low back pain: a mixed methods feasibility study

OutcomeBaseline8 weeks16 weeksEffect size (Baseline to 16 weeks)
OutcomesMean (95% CI)Mean (95% CI)Mean (95% CI)Cohens d
LBP (NPRS; 0–10)
 Current2.9 (2.2–3.6)1.9 (1.2–2.5)*1.8 (1.1–2.4)*0.81 (0.3–1.3)
 Worst last 2 weeks6.5 (5.8–7.2)3.9 (3.1–4.6)**3.0 (2.3–3.8)**2.1 (1.6–2.7)
 Worst last 4 weeks6.7 (6.2–7.5)4.3 (3.5–5.7)**3.6 (2.8–4.3)**2.0 (1.5–2.6)
 ODI (0–50)8.4 (7.8–9.7)7.3 (5.9–8.6)*5.3 (3.9–6.6)*1.1 (0.7–1.5)
 PSEQ (0–60)49.1 (51.3–57.1)54.2 (51.3–57.1)*56.1 (53.2–59.6)*1.1 (0.8–1.5)
 Squat strength (kg)65.4 (55.8–75.0)82.1 (72.5–91.7)**100.4 (90.7–110.3)**1.7 (1.6–1.9)
 Bench – press (kg)54.7 (44.4–65.6)62.4 (51.7–72.3)**71.7 (61.4–82.1)**0.8 (0.7–0.9)
 Deadlift (kg)76.4 (66.5–86.8)92.9 (82.4–103.3)**104.7 (94.2–115.2)**1.3 (1.0–1.5)
 Pendlay row (kg)48.3 (41.9–55.7)53.6 (46.3–61.0)**60.5 (53.1–67.8)**0.8 (0.7–0.9)
  1. Abbreviations: NPRS Numerical Pain Rating Scale, ODI Oswestry Low Back Disability Questionnaire, PSEQ Pain Self- Efficacy Questionnaire, LBP Low Back Pain, CI Confidence Interval. Change from baseline* p ≤ 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.01