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Table 1 Description of the balance training programs by the level of task difficulty

From: Effects of balance training on balance performance in youth: role of training difficulty

Group Week 1 (session 1 & 2) Week 2 (session 3 & 4) Week 3 (session 5 & 6) Week 4 (session 7 & 8) Week 5 (session 9 & 10) Week 6 (session 11 & 12) Week 7 (session 13 & 14)
BT-low a) Tandem stance: eyes opened, with arm support on a balance pad
b) Two-legged stance: eyes opened, with arm support on an ankle disc
c) Two-legged stance: eyes opened, with arm support on a balance board (difficulty level 1)
d) One-legged stance: eyes opened, with arm support on an air cushion
e) Walking forward: eyes opened, with arm support
f) Tandem walking forward: between two lines, eyes opened, with arm support
a) One-legged stance: eyes opened, with arm support on a balance pad
b)–e) cf. week 1 but without arm support
f) Tandem walking forward: on a line, eyes opened, with arm support
a) cf. week 2
b) Two-legged stance: squatting position, eyes opened, with arm support on an ankle disc
c) Two-legged stance: eyes opened, with arm support on a balance board (difficulty level 2)
d) Walking backward: eyes opened, with arm support on a balance beam
e) One-legged stance: change from eyes opened to close every 5 s
f) Flamingo stance: eyes opened, with arm support
a) Two-legged stance: squatting position, eyes opened, with arm support on a balance pad
b) cf. week 3
c) Two-legged stance: eyes opened, with arm support on a balance board (difficulty level 3)
d) cf. week 3
e) Two-legged stance: squatting position, eyes opened, with arm support on an air cushion
f) Flamingo stance: eyes opened, without arm support
a) Two-legged stance: squats, eyes opened, without arm support on a balance pad
b) One-legged stance: eyes opened, with arm support on an ankle disc
c) Two-legged stance: squatting position, eyes opened, with arm support on a balance board (difficulty level 3)
d) Walking backwards: eyes closed, without arm support on a balance beam
e) Two-legged stance: squats, eyes opened, with arm support on a sissle
f) One-legged stance: squats, eyes opened, without arm support
a) One-legged stance: eyes closed, with arm support on a balance pad
b) Two-legged stance: squats, eyes opened, with arm support on an ankle disc
c) Two-legged stance: squats, eyes opened, with arm support on a balance board (difficulty level 3)
d) Walking backwards: eyes opened, with arm support on a balance beam, counting backwards
e) Flamingo stance: eyes opened, with arm support on a sissle
f) Y Balance test reaches, eyes opened, with arm support
a) One-legged stance: eyes closed, without arm support on a balance pad
b) cf. week 6
c) Two-legged stance: squats, eyes closed, with arm support on a balance board (difficulty level 3)
d) Walking backwards: eyes closed, with arm support on a balance beam, counting backwards
e) One-legged stance: squats, eyes opened, with arm support
f) Y Balance test reaches, eyes closed, with arm support
BT-high a) Tandem stance, eyes closed, with arm support on a balance pad
b) Two-legged stance: eyes closed, with arm support on an ankle disc
c) Two-legged stance: eyes opened, with arm support on a balance board (difficulty level 4)
d) One-legged stance: eyes closed, with arm support on an air cushion
e) Walking forward: eyes opened, with arm support on a balance beam
f) Tandem walking forward: between two lines, eyes opened, without arm support
a) One-legged stance: eyes closed, with arm support on a balance pad
b)–e) cf. week 1 but without arm support
f) Tandem walking forward: on a line, eyes opened, without arm support
a) cf. week 2
b) Two-legged stance: squatting position, eyes closed, with arm support on an ankle disc
c) Two-legged stance: eyes closed, with arm support on a balance board (difficulty level 4)
d) Walking forward: eyes opened, with arm support on a balance beam, counting backwards
e) Tandem stance: eyes closed, counting backwards
f) Flamingo stance: eyes closed, with arm support
a) Two-legged stance: squatting position, eyes closed, with arm support on a balance pad
b) cf. week 3
c) Two-legged stance: eyes opened, without arm support on a balance board (difficulty level 4)
d) cf. week 3
e) Two-legged stance: squatting position, eyes closed, with arm support on an air cushion
f) Flamingo stance: eyes closed, without arm support
a) Two-legged stance: squats, eyes closed, without arm support on a balance pad
b) One-legged stance: eyes opened, without arm support on an ankle disc
c) Two-legged stance: squatting position, eyes opened, with arm support on a balance board (difficulty level 5)
d) Walking backwards: eyes closed, without arm support on a balance beam, counting backwards
e) Two-legged stance: squats, eyes closed, with arm support on an air cushion
f) One-legged stance: squats, eyes closed, without arm support
a) One-legged stance: eyes closed, with arm support on a balance pad, counting backwards
b) Two-legged stance: squats, eyes closed, with arm support on an ankle disc
c) Two-legged stance: squats, eyes opened, with arm support on a balance board (difficulty level 6)
d) Walking backwards: eyes opened, on a balance beam and with basketball dribbling
e) Flamingo stance: eyes opened, without arm support on an air cushion
f) Y Balance test reaches, eyes opened, without arm support
a) One-legged stance: eyes closed, without arm support on a balance pad, counting backwards
b) cf. week 6
c) Two-legged stance: squats, eyes closed, with arm support on a balance board (difficulty level 6)
d) Walking backwards: eyes opened, on a balance beam and with throwing/catching a tennis ball
e) One-legged stance: squats, eyes opened, without arm support
f) Y Balance test reaches, eyes closed, without arm support
  1. Bold font indicates differences in task difficulty. The balance board (Wobblesmart©, Artzt GmbH, Dornburg, Germany) is equipped with a mechanically adjustable pivot to increase task difficulty from level 1 (low) to 6 (high). BT-low Balance training using a low level of task difficulty, BT-high Balance training using a high level of task difficulty