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Table 2 Effects of balance training using a high versus low level of task difficulty on measures of balance in youth

From: Effects of balance training on balance performance in youth: role of training difficulty

Variables BT-low (n = 19) BT-high (n = 19) p-value (Cohen’s d)
Pre Post ∆%a Pre Post ∆%a Test Test x Group Group
Static balance
 OLS time; EO, FI [s] 44.8 ± 19.8 58.7 ± 10.3 + 31 50.4 ± 16.1 54.9 ± 13.9 + 9 .001 (1.22) .078 (0.61) .798 (0.09)
 OLS time; EC, FI [s] 13.4 ± 11.7 30.0 ± 17.8 + 124 23.7 ± 19.2 40.8 ± 20.8 + 72 <.001 (1.83) .935 (0.04) .037 (0.72)
 OLS time; EO, FO [s] 23.7 ± 18.5 49.6 ± 17.5 + 109 31.1 ± 21.6 49.4 ± 17.4 + 59 <.001 (2.03) .301 (0.35) .466 (0.25)
Dynamic balance
 Gait velocity [m/s] 1.63 ± 0.26 1.66 ± 0.22 + 2 1.71 ± 0.28 1.69 ± 0.20 −1 .909 (0.05) .387 (0.29) .461 (0.25)
Proactive balance
 AT [% LL] 69.8 ± 9.2 73.2 ± 9.7 + 5 71.6 ± 10.4 78.1 ± 11.1 + 9 <.001 (1.96) .074 (0.61) .301 (0.35)
 PM [% LL] 110.3 ± 9.6 112.5 ± 7.7 + 2 109.6 ± 13.9 114.9 ± 10.8 + 5 .001 (1.26) .125 (0.52) .802 (0.09)
 PL [% LL] 104.4 ± 11.1 109.1 ± 7.4 + 5 107.9 ± 12.8 113.1 ± 10.6 + 5 <.001 (1.51) .829 (0.06) .253 (0.39)
 CS [% LL] 94.9 ± 8.7 98.3 ± 7.0 + 4 96.4 ± 11.1 102.1 ± 9.2 + 6 <.001 (2.15) .110 (0.54) .356 (0.31)
 FRT [cm] 42.7 ± 7.2 43.6 ± 6.4 + 2 42.4 ± 9.6 45.7 ± 9.2 + 8 <.001 (1.57) .014 (0.87) .742 (0.11)
 TUG [s] 5.2 ± 0.4 5.0 ± 0.5 + 4 5.3 ± 0.7 5.2 ± 0.5 + 2 .098 (0.57) .701 (0.13) .521 (0.22)
  1. Values are mean values ± standard deviations. Figures in brackets are effect sizes (Cohen’s d) with 0 ≤ d ≤ 0.49 indicating small, 0.50 ≤ d ≤ 0.79 medium, and d ≥ 0.80 large effects. aA positive/negative percentage value indicates a performance improvement/decrement. AT Anterior, BT-low Balance training using a low level of task difficulty, BT-high Balance training using a high level of task difficulty, CS Composite score, EC Eyes closed, EO Eyes opened, FI Firm ground, FO Foam ground, FRT Functional Reach Test, LL Leg length, OLS One-legged stance, PL Posterolateral, PM Posteromedial, TUG Timed-Up-and-Go Test