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Table 1 Preoperative characteristics of participants and tourniquet time in the control and LST groups

From: Effects of preoperative low-intensity training with slow movement on early quadriceps weakness after total knee arthroplasty in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a retrospective propensity score-matched study

  All participants Matched participants
Control (n = 127) LST (n = 46) SMD Control (n = 41) LST (n = 41) SMD
Age (years), median (IQR) 74 (68, 79) 71 (66, 75) 0.06 71 (66, 75) 71 (67, 75) 0.00
Male, n (%) 40 (31) 4 (9) 0.59 5 (12) 4 (10) 0.08
BMI (kg/m2), median (IQR) 26 (23, 28) 25 (23, 28) 0.02 26 (24, 29) 25 (23, 28) 0.00
Current medical history, n (%)
 Heart disease 15 (12) 3 (7) 0.18 2 (5) 3 (7) 0.10
 Diabetes 24 (19) 8 (17) 0.04 8 (20) 8 (20) 0.00
 Hyperlipidemia 51 (40) 20 (43) 0.07 18 (44) 18 (44) 0.00
 Rheumatoid arthritis 1 (1) 2 (4) 0.23 0 (0) 2 (5) 0.32
KL grade 3 of surgical knee, n (%) 14 (12) 5 (11) 0.00 4 (10) 5 (12) 0.08
Contralateral knee, n (%)
 OA and TKA, n (%) 102 (80) 38 (83) 0.06 32 (78) 33 (80) 0.06
 Quadriceps strength, median (IQR) 1.3 (1.1, 1.7) 1.4 (1.2, 1.7) 0.05 1.3 (1.1, 1.7) 1.4 (1.2, 1.7) 0.01
T-handle cane usage, n (%) 7 (6) 1 (2) 0.17 0 (0) 1 (2) 0.22
SCT (s), median (IQR) 24 (16, 34) 20 (14, 25) 0.03 21 (17, 31) 22 (16, 27) 0.01
JKOM (points), median (IQR) 37 (25, 49) 32 (25, 45) 0.01 36 (32, 46) 34 (27, 48) 0.00
Tourniquet time (min), median (IQR) 58 (54, 66) 56 (52, 67) 0.01 56, (53, 63) 56 (52, 65) 0.01
  1. Preoperative characteristics and tourniquet time between the groups were compared using standardized mean differences. Abbreviations: LST low-intensity resistance exercise with slow movement and tonic force generation, SMD standardized mean difference, IQR interquartile range, BMI body mass index, KL Kellgren and Lawrence, OA osteoarthritis, TKA total knee arthroplasty, SCT stair climb test, JKOM Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure