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Table 1 Characteristics of national-level female artistic gymnasts, acrobatic gymnasts (training as “tops”), and non-athletesa

From: Postural sway in young female artistic and acrobatic gymnasts according to training experience and anthropometric characteristics

  ARG (n = 10) ACG (n = 10) Non-athletes (n = 10)
Age (years) 11.1 ± 1.29; 10–13 11.3 ± 0.67; 10–12 10.8 ± 0.79; 10–12
Body height (cm)* 139.8 ± 5.85; 132–150 132.5 ± 5.23; 124–140 146.5 ± 6.43; 136–155
Body mass (kg)** 29.6 ± 3.6; 24–35.5 26.9 ± 4.31; 20–34 36.2 ± 4.82; 29–41.5
BMI percentile*** 13.2 ± 9.0; 3–27 17.3 ± 16.69; 0–49 39 ± 24.14; 9–84
Maturity offset −1.1 ± 1.00; −2.1-0.5 − 1.4 ± 0.52; (− 2.3) - (− 0.8) −1 ± 0.75; − 2-0.1
Gymnastics experience (years)**** 4.8 ± 0.92; 4–6 3.3 ± 0.67; 2–4 0
Training frequency (hours/week)***** 12.5 ± 0; 12.5 9.1 ± 1.45; 7–10 0
  1. ARG artistic gymnasts, ACG acrobatic gymnasts
  2. a Data are presented as means ± standard deviations; ranges
  3. *ARG vs ACG: p = 0.01, r ES = 0.54; ARG vs non-athletes: p = 0.02, r ES = 0.5; ACG vs non-athletes: p = 0.00004, r ES = 0.81. **ARG vs non-athletes: p = 0.007, r ES = 0.59; ACG vs non-athletes: p = 0.0007, r ES = 0.7. ***ARG vs non-athletes: p = 0.001, r ES = 0.69; ACG vs non-athletes: p = 0.04, r ES = 0.46. ****ARG vs ACG: p = 0.002, r ES = 0.72. *****ARG vs ACG: p = 0.00001, r ES = 0.93 (Mann-Whitney U test)